Pollinators are experiencing declines globally, negatively affecting the reproduction of wild plants and crop production. Well-known drivers of these declines include climatic and nutritional stresses, such as a change of dietary resources due to the degradation of habitat quality. Understanding potential synergies between these two important drivers is needed to improve predictive models of the future effects of climate change on pollinator declines. Here, bumblebee colony bioassays were used to evaluate the interactive effects of heat stress, a reduction of dietary resource quality, and colony size. Using a total of 117 colonies, we applied a fully crossed experiment to test the effect of three dietary quality levels under three levels of heat stress with two colony sizes. Both nutritional and heat stress reduced colony development resulting in a lower investment in offspring production. Small colonies were much more sensitive to heat and nutritional stresses than large ones, possibly because a higher percentage of workers helps maintain social homeostasis. Strikingly, the effects of heat stress were far less pronounced for small colonies fed with suitable diets. Overall, our study suggests that landscape management actions that ensure access to high-quality resources could reduce the impacts of heat stress on bee decline.