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      Ensuring access to high-quality resources reduces the impacts of heat stress on bees

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          Abstract

          Pollinators are experiencing declines globally, negatively affecting the reproduction of wild plants and crop production. Well-known drivers of these declines include climatic and nutritional stresses, such as a change of dietary resources due to the degradation of habitat quality. Understanding potential synergies between these two important drivers is needed to improve predictive models of the future effects of climate change on pollinator declines. Here, bumblebee colony bioassays were used to evaluate the interactive effects of heat stress, a reduction of dietary resource quality, and colony size. Using a total of 117 colonies, we applied a fully crossed experiment to test the effect of three dietary quality levels under three levels of heat stress with two colony sizes. Both nutritional and heat stress reduced colony development resulting in a lower investment in offspring production. Small colonies were much more sensitive to heat and nutritional stresses than large ones, possibly because a higher percentage of workers helps maintain social homeostasis. Strikingly, the effects of heat stress were far less pronounced for small colonies fed with suitable diets. Overall, our study suggests that landscape management actions that ensure access to high-quality resources could reduce the impacts of heat stress on bee decline.

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          Most cited references 74

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          Ecological and Evolutionary Responses to Recent Climate Change

          Ecological changes in the phenology and distribution of plants and animals are occurring in all well-studied marine, freshwater, and terrestrial groups. These observed changes are heavily biased in the directions predicted from global warming and have been linked to local or regional climate change through correlations between climate and biological variation, field and laboratory experiments, and physiological research. Range-restricted species, particularly polar and mountaintop species, show severe range contractions and have been the first groups in which entire species have gone extinct due to recent climate change. Tropical coral reefs and amphibians have been most negatively affected. Predator-prey and plant-insect interactions have been disrupted when interacting species have responded differently to warming. Evolutionary adaptations to warmer conditions have occurred in the interiors of species' ranges, and resource use and dispersal have evolved rapidly at expanding range margins. Observed genetic shifts modulate local effects of climate change, but there is little evidence that they will mitigate negative effects at the species level.
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            Ecological intensification: harnessing ecosystem services for food security.

            Rising demands for agricultural products will increase pressure to further intensify crop production, while negative environmental impacts have to be minimized. Ecological intensification entails the environmentally friendly replacement of anthropogenic inputs and/or enhancement of crop productivity, by including regulating and supporting ecosystem services management in agricultural practices. Effective ecological intensification requires an understanding of the relations between land use at different scales and the community composition of ecosystem service-providing organisms above and below ground, and the flow, stability, contribution to yield, and management costs of the multiple services delivered by these organisms. Research efforts and investments are particularly needed to reduce existing yield gaps by integrating context-appropriate bundles of ecosystem services into crop production systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Stability of pollination services decreases with isolation from natural areas despite honey bee visits.

              Sustainable agricultural landscapes by definition provide high magnitude and stability of ecosystem services, biodiversity and crop productivity. However, few studies have considered landscape effects on the stability of ecosystem services. We tested whether isolation from florally diverse natural and semi-natural areas reduces the spatial and temporal stability of flower-visitor richness and pollination services in crop fields. We synthesised data from 29 studies with contrasting biomes, crop species and pollinator communities. Stability of flower-visitor richness, visitation rate (all insects except honey bees) and fruit set all decreased with distance from natural areas. At 1 km from adjacent natural areas, spatial stability decreased by 25, 16 and 9% for richness, visitation and fruit set, respectively, while temporal stability decreased by 39% for richness and 13% for visitation. Mean richness, visitation and fruit set also decreased with isolation, by 34, 27 and 16% at 1 km respectively. In contrast, honey bee visitation did not change with isolation and represented > 25% of crop visits in 21 studies. Therefore, wild pollinators are relevant for crop productivity and stability even when honey bees are abundant. Policies to preserve and restore natural areas in agricultural landscapes should enhance levels and reliability of pollination services. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                maryse.vanderplanck@umons.ac.be
                baptiste.martinet@umons.ac.be
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                29 August 2019
                29 August 2019
                2019
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2184 581X, GRID grid.8364.9, Laboratory of Zoology, Research Institute for Biosciences, , University of Mons, ; Place du Parc 23, 7000 Mons, Belgium
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2242 6780, GRID grid.503422.2, Evo-Eco-Paleo - UMR 8198, CNRS, Université de Lille, ; F-59000 Lille, France
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2192 5801, GRID grid.411195.9, Departamento de Ecologia, , Universidade Federal de Goiás, Campus Samambaia, ; Goiânia, GO Brazil
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2181 4263, GRID grid.9983.b, Center for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes (cE3c), University of Lisboa, ; Lisbon, Portugal
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2308 1657, GRID grid.462844.8, Pierre and Marie Curie University, Paris-Sorbonne 4, Place Jussieu, ; 75005 Paris, France
                Article
                49025
                10.1038/s41598-019-49025-z
                6715733
                31467366
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/501100002661, Fonds De La Recherche Scientifique - FNRS (Belgian National Fund for Scientific Research);
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/501100003130, Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (Research Foundation Flanders);
                Award ID: EOS 30947854
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
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                © The Author(s) 2019

                Uncategorized

                climate-change ecology, conservation biology

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