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      Renal Localisation of Rat Cysteine Dioxygenase

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: Cysteine dioxygenase (CDO, EC 1.13.11.20) catalyses the conversion of cysteine to cysteine sulphinic acid and controls the rate-limiting step of sulphate production. Many neurological and non-neurological diseases are associated with abnormalities in CDO activity, giving rise to reduced availability of sulphate. The importance of the kidney in the sulphation of xenobiotics has long been recognised, but little is known about the renal expression of key enzymes in this pathway. In order to address this, this report demonstrates the expression of CDO in the kidney. Methods: Two previously characterised antibodies were used to investigate the localisation and expression of CDO using immunohistochemistry, in-situ hybridisation and Western blotting. Results: Renal CDO was shown to exist as a 68-kDa protein, which was unaffected by levels of cysteine and methionine that had been previously shown to induce hepatic CDO. CDO protein expression was present in the proximal convoluted tubules of the cortex and the collecting ducts of both the medulla and papilla. Discussion: These results suggest that renal CDO is immunologically identical to that of the liver. Its expression in the kidney tubules, the major site of sulphation in the kidney, suggests that CDO in the kidney may play a role in both xenobiotic metabolism and sodium and water homeostasis.

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          Most cited references 7

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          Relation of taurine transport and brain edema in rats with simple hyperammonemia or liver failure.

          Taurine (Tau), an amino acid that abounds in brain, has been implicated in inhibitory neuromodulation and osmoregulation, the latter function being manifested by Tau release along with osmotically obligated water in response to brain tissue edema. A previous study (Hilgier and Olson: J. Neurochem. 62:197-204, 1994) had shown that simple hyperammonemia (HA) induced in rats by daily administration of ammonium acetate resulted in a decrease of both tissue specific gravity indicative of edema and Tau content, in basal ganglia (BG) but not in cerebral cortex (CC). By contrast, rats with hepatic encephalopathy (HE) following administration of a hepatotoxin, thioacetamide, were characterized by CC edema and an increased Tau content in both BG and CC. In the present study, we tested the following parameters that may potentially have affected Tau distribution in the two models: a) spontaneous, and stimulated (hypoosmolarity-induced) release of loaded [3H] Tau in vitro from CC and BG slices; b) blood Tau content; and c) uptake of [14C] Tau in vivo from blood to brain corrected for [3H] water passage-the so-called brain uptake index (BUI). The two edema-affected structures: BG in the HA model and CC in the HE model, showed increased spontaneous Tau release. Edema-associated spontaneous release of Tau may favor inhibitory neurotransmission contributing to the pathomechanism of HA or HE. Stimulated release, reflecting the ability of the tissue to reduce water content, was decreased in the BG from HA rats, in agreement with the postulated role of Tau in osmoregulation. Stimulated release was unchanged in CC of HE rats. Neither spontaneous nor stimulated release of Tau were affected in CC of HA rats or in BG of HE rats. HE, but not HA, was associated with elevated blood content and increased BUI for TAU, which in combination, contributed to the increase of Tau content in CC. The latter phenomenon adds to the list of metabolic changes distinguishing simple HA from toxic liver damage, reemphasizing the crucial role of factors other than ammonia in the pathomechanism of HE.
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            Cysteine oxidase in brain

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              The renal brush border membrane sodium/sulfate cotransporter functions in situ as a homotetramer

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEF
                Nephron
                10.1159/issn.1660-8151
                Nephron
                S. Karger AG
                1660-8151
                2235-3186
                2001
                2001
                25 July 2001
                : 88
                : 4
                : 340-346
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Medicine, Queen Elizabeth Hospital; bSchool of Biochemistry, University of Birmingham, and cCentre for Neurosciences, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
                Article
                46018 Nephron 2001;88:340–346
                10.1159/000046018
                11474229
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, References: 39, Pages: 7
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/46018
                Categories
                Original Paper

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