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      Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic study of posaconazole delayed-release tablet in a patient with coexisting invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis

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          Limited information exists regarding the optimal dose of posaconazole delayed-release tablet for the treatment of invasive mold infection. Here, we report the case of a previously healthy 44-year-old Thai man who developed coexisting invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and mucormycosis following a car accident. He was treated with posaconazole delayed-release tablet. This report describes the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic study, safety profile, and determination of the appropriate dosage of posaconazole delayed-release tablet in a patient with coexisting invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis. Posaconazole exposure was analyzed by noncompartmental model. Ratio of area under the plasma concentration-time curve over the minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC/MIC) was applied to maximize the efficacy of posaconazole. The loading dose of 300 mg q 12 hrs was found to be potentially insufficient for achieving the AUC/MIC target for treatment of invasive mold infection with minimum inhibitory concentrations >0.01 mg/L. Early therapeutic drug monitoring to detect the drug concentration of posaconazole delayed-release tablet is necessary so that dosing adjustments can be made, as needed. In addition, a maintenance dose of either 400 or 300 mg once daily could achieve the AUC/MIC targets. These maintenance dosing regimens effectuated a successful clinical outcome with minimal adverse events.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of antifungal agents: guidelines from the British Society for Medical Mycology.

          The burden of human disease related to medically important fungal pathogens is substantial. An improved understanding of antifungal pharmacology and antifungal pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics has resulted in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) becoming a valuable adjunct to the routine administration of some antifungal agents. TDM may increase the probability of a successful outcome, prevent drug-related toxicity and potentially prevent the emergence of antifungal drug resistance. Much of the evidence that supports TDM is circumstantial. This document reviews the available literature and provides a series of recommendations for TDM of antifungal agents.
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            Pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of oral posaconazole administered in single and multiple doses in healthy adults.

            The pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of posaconazole, an investigational triazole antifungal, were evaluated following the administration of rising single and multiple oral doses. A total of 103 healthy adults were enrolled in two phase I trials. Each study had a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design with a rising single-dose (RSD) or rising multiple-dose (RMD) scheme. In the RSD study, subjects received single doses of posaconazole oral tablets (50 to 1200 mg) or placebo. In the RMD study, subjects received posaconazole oral tablets (50 to 400 mg) or placebo twice daily for 14 days. By using model-independent methods, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve and the maximum concentration in plasma were determined and used to assess dose proportionality. In the RSD study, the levels of posaconazole in plasma increased proportionally between the 50- and 800-mg dose range, with saturation of absorption occurring above 800 mg. Dose proportionality was also observed in the RMD study. In both studies, the apparent volume of distribution was large (range, 343 to 1341 liters) and the terminal-phase half-life was long (range, 25 to 31 h). Posaconazole was well tolerated at all dose levels, and the adverse events were not dose dependent. No clinically significant changes in clinical laboratory test values or electrocardiograms were observed. Following the administration of single and twice-daily rising doses, the level of posaconazole exposure increased in a dose-proportional manner. The long elimination-phase half-life of posaconazole supports once- or twice-daily dosing in clinical trials; however, additional studies are required to determine if further division of the dose will enhance exposure.
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              Multicenter study of posaconazole therapeutic drug monitoring: exposure-response relationship and factors affecting concentration.

              Posaconazole has an important role in the prophylaxis and salvage treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFIs), although poor and variable bioavailability remains an important clinical concern. Therapeutic drug monitoring of posaconazole concentrations has remained contentious, with the use of relatively small patient cohorts in previous studies hindering the assessment of exposure-response relationships. This multicenter retrospective study aimed to investigate relationships between posaconazole concentration and clinical outcomes and adverse events and to assess clinical factors and drug interactions that may affect posaconazole concentrations. Medical records were reviewed for patients who received posaconazole and had ≥1 concentration measured at six hospitals in Australia. Data from 86 patients with 541 posaconazole concentrations were included in the study. Among 72 patients taking posaconazole for prophylaxis against IFIs, 12 patients (17%) developed a breakthrough fungal infection; median posaconazole concentrations were significantly lower than in those who did not develop fungal infection (median [range], 289 [50 to 471] ng/ml versus 485 [0 to 2,035] ng/ml; P < 0.01). The median posaconazole concentration was a significant predictor of breakthrough fungal infection via binary logistic regression (P < 0.05). A multiple linear regression analysis identified a number of significant drug interactions associated with reduced posaconazole exposure, including coadministration with proton pump inhibitors, metoclopramide, phenytoin or rifampin, and the H(2) antagonist ranitidine (P < 0.01). Clinical factors such as mucositis, diarrhea, and the early posttransplant period in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients were also associated with reduced posaconazole exposure (P < 0.01). Low posaconazole concentrations are common and are associated with breakthrough fungal infection, supporting the utility of monitoring posaconazole concentrations to ensure optimal systemic exposure.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                24 April 2019
                : 15
                : 589-595
                [1 ]Division of Clinical Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University , Bangkok, Thailand
                [2 ]Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine Vajira Hospital, Navamindradhiraj University , Bangkok, Thailand
                [3 ]Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University , Bangkok, Thailand
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Methee Chayakulkeeree Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University , 2 Wanglang Road, Bangkokoi, Bangkok10700, ThailandTel +662 419 9462Fax +662 419 7783Email methee.cha@ 123456mahidol.ac.th
                © 2019 Leelawattanachai et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, References: 23, Pages: 7
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