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      Nano based drug delivery systems: recent developments and future prospects

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          Nanomedicine and nano delivery systems are a relatively new but rapidly developing science where materials in the nanoscale range are employed to serve as means of diagnostic tools or to deliver therapeutic agents to specific targeted sites in a controlled manner. Nanotechnology offers multiple benefits in treating chronic human diseases by site-specific, and target-oriented delivery of precise medicines. Recently, there are a number of outstanding applications of the nanomedicine (chemotherapeutic agents, biological agents, immunotherapeutic agents etc.) in the treatment of various diseases. The current review, presents an updated summary of recent advances in the field of nanomedicines and nano based drug delivery systems through comprehensive scrutiny of the discovery and application of nanomaterials in improving both the efficacy of novel and old drugs (e.g., natural products) and selective diagnosis through disease marker molecules. The opportunities and challenges of nanomedicines in drug delivery from synthetic/natural sources to their clinical applications are also discussed. In addition, we have included information regarding the trends and perspectives in nanomedicine area.

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          Most cited references 261

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          Discovery and resupply of pharmacologically active plant-derived natural products: A review

          Medicinal plants have historically proven their value as a source of molecules with therapeutic potential, and nowadays still represent an important pool for the identification of novel drug leads. In the past decades, pharmaceutical industry focused mainly on libraries of synthetic compounds as drug discovery source. They are comparably easy to produce and resupply, and demonstrate good compatibility with established high throughput screening (HTS) platforms. However, at the same time there has been a declining trend in the number of new drugs reaching the market, raising renewed scientific interest in drug discovery from natural sources, despite of its known challenges. In this survey, a brief outline of historical development is provided together with a comprehensive overview of used approaches and recent developments relevant to plant-derived natural product drug discovery. Associated challenges and major strengths of natural product-based drug discovery are critically discussed. A snapshot of the advanced plant-derived natural products that are currently in actively recruiting clinical trials is also presented. Importantly, the transition of a natural compound from a “screening hit” through a “drug lead” to a “marketed drug” is associated with increasingly challenging demands for compound amount, which often cannot be met by re-isolation from the respective plant sources. In this regard, existing alternatives for resupply are also discussed, including different biotechnology approaches and total organic synthesis. While the intrinsic complexity of natural product-based drug discovery necessitates highly integrated interdisciplinary approaches, the reviewed scientific developments, recent technological advances, and research trends clearly indicate that natural products will be among the most important sources of new drugs also in the future.
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            Nanoparticles in medicine: therapeutic applications and developments.

            Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter generally in the 1-100 nm dimension range. The application of nanotechnology to medicine, known as nanomedicine, concerns the use of precisely engineered materials at this length scale to develop novel therapeutic and diagnostic modalities. Nanomaterials have unique physicochemical properties, such as ultra small size, large surface area to mass ratio, and high reactivity, which are different from bulk materials of the same composition. These properties can be used to overcome some of the limitations found in traditional therapeutic and diagnostic agents.
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              Liposomes as nanomedical devices

              Since their discovery in the 1960s, liposomes have been studied in depth, and they continue to constitute a field of intense research. Liposomes are valued for their biological and technological advantages, and are considered to be the most successful drug-carrier system known to date. Notable progress has been made, and several biomedical applications of liposomes are either in clinical trials, are about to be put on the market, or have already been approved for public use. In this review, we briefly analyze how the efficacy of liposomes depends on the nature of their components and their size, surface charge, and lipidic organization. Moreover, we discuss the influence of the physicochemical properties of liposomes on their interaction with cells, half-life, ability to enter tissues, and final fate in vivo. Finally, we describe some strategies developed to overcome limitations of the “first-generation” liposomes, and liposome-based drugs on the market and in clinical trials.

                Author and article information

                J Nanobiotechnology
                J Nanobiotechnology
                Journal of Nanobiotechnology
                BioMed Central (London )
                19 September 2018
                19 September 2018
                : 16
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0671 5021, GRID grid.255168.d, Research Institute of Biotechnology & Medical Converged Science, , Dongguk University-Seoul, ; Goyang-si, 10326 Republic of Korea
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2188 478X, GRID grid.410543.7, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Institute of Science and Technology, ; Sorocaba, São Paulo Zip Code 18087-180 Brazil
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0723 2494, GRID grid.411087.b, Department of Biochemistry and Tissue Biology, Institute of Biology, , State University of Campinas, ; Campinas, São Paulo Zip code 13083-862 Brazil
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2159 0001, GRID grid.9486.3, Laboratorio de Investigación Interdisciplinaria, Área de Nanoestructuras y Biomateriales, Escuela Nacional de Estudios Superiores, Unidad Leon, , Universidad Nacional Autonóma de México (UNAM), ; Boulevard UNAM No 2011. Predio El Saucillo y El Potrero, 37684 León, Guanajuato Mexico
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1776 8315, GRID grid.466579.f, Centro de Investigaciones en Óptica, ; A.P. 1-948, C.P. 37000 León, Guanajuato Mexico
                [6 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2188 478X, GRID grid.410543.7, Department of Physics and Chemistry, School of Engineering, , São Paulo State University (UNESP), ; Ilha Solteira, SP 15385-000 Brazil
                [7 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2231 800X, GRID grid.11142.37, Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, , Universiti Putra Malaysia, ; 43400 Serdang, Selangor Malaysia
                [8 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2190 9158, GRID grid.419983.e, Department of Biotechnology, , Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology Allahabad, ; Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh 211004 India
                [9 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0806 5472, GRID grid.36316.31, Pharmacognosy Research Laboratories & Herbal Analysis Services UK, , University of Greenwich, ; Medway Campus-Science, Grenville Building (G102/G107), Central Avenue, Chatham-Maritime, Kent, ME4 4TB UK
                [10 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0671 5021, GRID grid.255168.d, Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, , Dongguk University, ; Ilsandong-gu, Goyang, Gyeonggi-do 10326 Republic of Korea
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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                © The Author(s) 2018


                nanomedicine, nanomaterials, drug delivery, drug targeting, natural products


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