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      Influence of Broth Enrichment as well as Storage and Transport Time on the Sensitivity of MRSA Surveillance in the Tropics

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          Direct growth on blood and screening agar for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at a tropical surveillance site was compared with broth enrichment and subsequent growth on selective MRSA agar after international sample transport.

          In Madagascar, 1548 swabs from an MRSA surveillance study were assessed for growth on Columbia blood agar enriched with 5% sheep blood and MRSA screening agar at the surveillance site with subsequent cold storage of the samples and shipment to Germany. In Germany, 1541 shipped samples were analyzed by non-selective broth enrichment with subsequent culture on MRSA selective agar.

          A total of 28 MRSA isolates were detected. Of these, 20 strains were isolated from direct culture on blood and MRSA screening agars at the surveillance site, 24 MRSA strains were isolated using the broth enrichment method in Germany, and 16 MRSA strains were identified by both approaches.

          In spite of the observed die-off of individual strains due to long-term storage and transport, broth enrichment with subsequent screening on MRSA selective agar after international sample shipment led to comparable sensitivity of MRSA detection like streaking on blood and MRSA agar at the tropical surveillance site.

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          Epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus lineages in five major African towns: emergence and spread of atypical clones.

          The epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Africa is poorly documented. From January 2007 to March 2008, we collected 86 MRSA isolates from five African towns, one each in Cameroon, Madagascar, Morocco, Niger and Senegal. Although one or two major clones, defined by the sequence type and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type, predominated at each site, genetic diversity (ten clones) was relatively limited in view of the large geographical area studied. Most of the isolates (n = 76, 88%) belonged to three major clones, namely ST239/241-III, a well-known pandemic clone (n = 34, 40%), ST88-IV (n = 24, 28%) and ST5-IV (n = 18, 21%). The latter two clones have only been sporadically described in other parts of the world. The spread of community-associated MRSA carrying the Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes is a cause for concern, especially in Dakar and possibly throughout Africa. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.
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            Nasal Screening for MRSA: Different Swabs – Different Results!

            Objectives Swab-based nasal screening is commonly used to identify asymptomatic carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in patients. Bacterial detection depends on the uptake and release capacities of the swabs and on the swabbing technique itself. This study investigates the performance of different swab-types in nasal MRSA-screening by utilizing a unique artificial nose model to provide realistic and standardized screening conditions. Methods An anatomically correct artificial nose model was inoculated with a numerically defined mixture of MRSA and Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria at quantities of 4×102 and 8×102 colony forming units (CFU), respectively. Five swab-types were tested following a strict protocol. Bacterial recovery was measured for direct plating and after elution into Amies medium by standard viable count techniques. Results Mean recovered bacteria quantities varied between 209 and 0 CFU for MRSA, and 365 and 0 CFU for S. epidermidis, resulting swab-type-dependent MRSA-screening-sensitivities ranged between 0 and 100%. Swabs with nylon flocked tips or cellular foam tips performed significantly better compared to conventional rayon swabs referring to the recovered bacterial yield (p<0.001). Best results were obtained by using a flocked swab in combination with Amies preservation medium. Within the range of the utilized bacterial concentrations, recovery ratios for the particular swab-types were independent of the bacterial species. Conclusions This study combines a realistic model of a human nose with standardized laboratory conditions to analyze swab-performance in MRSA-screening situations. Therefore, influences by inter-individual anatomical differences as well as diverse colonization densities in patients could be excluded. Recovery rates vary significantly between different swab-types. The choice of the swab has a great impact on the laboratory result. In fact, the swab-type contributes significantly to true positive or false negative detection of nasal MRSA carriage. These findings should be considered when screening a patient.
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              Nasal Screening for Staphylococcus aureus – Daily Routine with Improvement Potentials

              Objectives Staphylococcus aureus causes purulent bacterial infections with a considerable number of life-threatening complications and thus, is a serious cost factor in public health. Up to 50% of a given population could asymptomatically carry Staphylococcus aureus in their nares, thereby serving as a source for contact transmissions and endogenous infections. Nasal swab-based screening techniques are widely used to identify suchcarriers. This study investigated the skill of medical professionals in taking nasal swabs and the effect of teaching on improving bacterial recovery rates. Methods 364 persons with different medical educational background participated in this study. A novel anatomically correct artificial nose model was implemented and inoculated with a numerically defined mixture of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria. Utilizing regular clinical swabs, participants performed screening of the inoculated nose models before and after standardized theoretical, visual, and practical teaching. Recovery of bacteria was measured by standard viable count techniques. Data were analyzed statistically by nonparametric tests. Results It could be demonstrated that combined theoretical and practical teaching improved bacterial recovery rates. Even experienced medical professionals increased their detection levels after training. Recovery rates of bacteria varied significantly between trained (158.1 CFU) and untrained (47.5 CFU) participants (Wilcoxon test, p<0.001; Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, p<0.001). Conclusions Swabs are commonly used to detect nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in patients. The present teaching algorithm combined with the novel nose model offers an excellent precondition to improve knowledge and performance of this technique. Increased detection rates may prevent from contact transmission due to suboptimum hygienic patient handling. Consecutively, this effect could reduce costs for patient care. This study highlights the tremendous potential of combined theoretical, visual, and practical teaching methods in this field - and uncovers its actual necessity. Therefore, this training method can be recommended for all medical institutions.

                Author and article information

                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                19 October 2017
                18 December 2017
                : 7
                : 4
                : 274-277
                [1 ] Department of Tropical Medicine at the Bernhard Nocht Institute, Bundeswehr Hospital Hamburg , Hamburg, Germany
                [2 ] Institute for Medical Microbiology, Virology and Hygiene, University Medicine Rostock , Rostock, Germany
                [3 ] Institute for Microbiology, Charité – University Medicine Berlin , Berlin, Germany
                [4 ] Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine Hamburg , Hamburg, Germany
                [5 ] Department of Preventive Medicine, Bundeswehr Medical Academy , Munich, Germany
                [6 ] Institute for Medical Microbiology, Virology and Hygiene, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf , Hamburg, Germany
                [7 ] Central Institute of the Bundeswehr Medical Service Koblenz , Koblenz, Germany
                [8 ] Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Antananarivo , Antananarivo, Madagascar
                Author notes
                * Department of Tropical Medicine at the Bernhard Nocht Institute, German Armed Forces Hospital of Hamburg, Bernhard Nocht Str. 74, 20359 Hamburg, Germany; 0049–40–6947–28700; 0049–40–6947–28709; Frickmann@ 123456bni-hamburg.de
                © 2017, The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 15, Pages: 4
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