Blog
About

0
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Three (and more) component regulatory systems - auxiliary regulators of bacterial histidine kinases : Auxiliary regulators of histidine kinases

      ,  

      Molecular Microbiology

      Wiley

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Two-component signal transduction (TCST) is the most prevalent mechanism employed by microbes to sense and respond to environmental changes. It is characterized by the signal-induced transfer of phosphate from a sensor histidine kinase (HK) to a response regulator (RR), resulting in a cellular response. An emerging theme in the field of TCST signalling is the discovery of auxiliary factors, distinct from the HK and RR, which are capable of influencing phosphotransfer. One group of TCST auxiliary proteins accomplishes this task by acting on HKs. Auxiliary regulators of HKs are widespread and have been identified in all cellular compartments, where they can influence HK activity through interactions with the sensing, transmembrane or enzymatic domains of the HK. The effects of an auxiliary regulator are controlled by its regulated expression, modification and/or through ligand binding. Ultimately, auxiliary regulators can connect a given TCST system to other regulatory networks in the cell or result in regulation of the TCST system in response to an expanded range of stimuli. The studies highlighted in this review draw attention to an emerging view of bacterial TCST systems as core signalling units upon which auxiliary factors act.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 109

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Bacterial quorum-sensing network architectures.

          Quorum sensing is a cell-cell communication process in which bacteria use the production and detection of extracellular chemicals called autoinducers to monitor cell population density. Quorum sensing allows bacteria to synchronize the gene expression of the group, and thus act in unison. Here, we review the mechanisms involved in quorum sensing with a focus on the Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing systems. We discuss the differences between these two quorum-sensing systems and the differences between them and other paradigmatic bacterial signal transduction systems. We argue that the Vibrio quorum-sensing systems are optimally designed to precisely translate extracellular autoinducer information into internal changes in gene expression. We describe how studies of the V. harveyi and V. cholerae quorum-sensing systems have revealed some of the fundamental mechanisms underpinning the evolution of collective behaviors.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Structural identification of a bacterial quorum-sensing signal containing boron.

            Cell-cell communication in bacteria is accomplished through the exchange of extracellular signalling molecules called autoinducers. This process, termed quorum sensing, allows bacterial populations to coordinate gene expression. Community cooperation probably enhances the effectiveness of processes such as bioluminescence, virulence factor expression, antibiotic production and biofilm development. Unlike other autoinducers, which are specific to a particular species of bacteria, a recently discovered autoinducer (AI-2) is produced by a large number of bacterial species. AI-2 has been proposed to serve as a 'universal' signal for inter-species communication. The chemical identity of AI-2 has, however, proved elusive. Here we present the crystal structure of an AI-2 sensor protein, LuxP, in a complex with autoinducer. The bound ligand is a furanosyl borate diester that bears no resemblance to previously characterized autoinducers. Our findings suggest that addition of naturally occurring borate to an AI-2 precursor generates active AI-2. Furthermore, they indicate a potential biological role for boron, an element required by a number of organisms but for unknown reasons.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Biological insights from structures of two-component proteins.

               U. Stock,  Yu-Rong Gao (2008)
              Two-component signal transduction based on phosphotransfer from a histidine protein kinase to a response regulator protein is a prevalent strategy for coupling environmental stimuli to adaptive responses in bacteria. In both histidine kinases and response regulators, modular domains with conserved structures and biochemical activities adopt different conformational states in the presence of stimuli or upon phosphorylation, enabling a diverse array of regulatory mechanisms based on inhibitory and/or activating protein-protein interactions imparted by different domain arrangements. This review summarizes some of the recent structural work that has provided insight into the functioning of bacterial histidine kinases and response regulators. Particular emphasis is placed on identifying features that are expected to be conserved among different two-component proteins from those that are expected to differ, with the goal of defining the extent to which knowledge of previously characterized two-component proteins can be applied to newly discovered systems.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Molecular Microbiology
                Wiley
                0950382X
                February 2010
                February 2010
                November 25 2009
                : 75
                : 3
                : 547-566
                Article
                10.1111/j.1365-2958.2009.06982.x
                19943903
                © 2009

                Comments

                Comment on this article