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      Heart Failure in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus : Impact of Glucose-Lowering Agents, Heart Failure Therapies, and Novel Therapeutic Strategies

      1 , 1

      Circulation Research

      Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)

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          Abstract

          Patients with diabetes mellitus have >2× the risk for developing heart failure (HF; HF with reduced ejection fraction and HF with preserved ejection fraction). Cardiovascular outcomes, hospitalization, and prognosis are worse for patients with diabetes mellitus relative to those without. Beyond the structural and functional changes that characterize diabetic cardiomyopathy, a complex underlying, and interrelated pathophysiology exists. Despite the success of many commonly used antihyperglycemic therapies to lower hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus the high prevalence of HF persists. This, therefore, raises the possibility that additional factors beyond glycemia might contribute to the increased HF risk in diabetes mellitus. This review summarizes the state of knowledge about the impact of existing antihyperglycemic therapies on HF and discusses potential mechanisms for beneficial or deleterious effects. Second, we review currently approved pharmacological therapies for HF and review evidence that addresses their efficacy in the context of diabetes mellitus. Dysregulation of many cellular mechanisms in multiple models of diabetic cardiomyopathy and in human hearts have been described. These include oxidative stress, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, aberrant insulin signaling, accumulation of advanced glycated end-products, altered autophagy, changes in myocardial substrate metabolism and mitochondrial bioenergetics, lipotoxicity, and altered signal transduction such as GRK (g-protein receptor kinase) signaling, renin angiotensin aldosterone signaling and β-2 adrenergic receptor signaling. These pathophysiological pathways might be amenable to pharmacological therapy to reduce the risk of HF in the context of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Successful targeting of these pathways could alter the prognosis and risk of HF beyond what is currently achieved using existing antihyperglycemic and HF therapeutics.

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          Most cited references 205

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          The biology of incretin hormones.

          Gut peptides, exemplified by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are secreted in a nutrient-dependent manner and stimulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Both GIP and GLP-1 also promote beta cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis, leading to expansion of beta cell mass. GLP-1, but not GIP, controls glycemia via additional actions on glucose sensors, inhibition of gastric emptying, food intake and glucagon secretion. Furthermore, GLP-1, unlike GIP, potently stimulates insulin secretion and reduces blood glucose in human subjects with type 2 diabetes. This article summarizes current concepts of incretin action and highlights the potential therapeutic utility of GLP-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
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            Development by Self-Digestion

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              Disruption of coordinated cardiac hypertrophy and angiogenesis contributes to the transition to heart failure.

              Although increased external load initially induces cardiac hypertrophy with preserved contractility, sustained overload eventually leads to heart failure through poorly understood mechanisms. Here we describe a conditional transgenic system in mice characterized by the sequential development of adaptive cardiac hypertrophy with preserved contractility in the acute phase and dilated cardiomyopathy in the chronic phase following the induction of an activated Akt1 gene in the heart. Coronary angiogenesis was enhanced during the acute phase of adaptive cardiac growth but reduced as hearts underwent pathological remodeling. Enhanced angiogenesis in the acute phase was associated with mammalian target of rapamycin-dependent induction of myocardial VEGF and angiopoietin-2 expression. Inhibition of angiogenesis by a decoy VEGF receptor in the acute phase led to decreased capillary density, contractile dysfunction, and impaired cardiac growth. Thus, both heart size and cardiac function are angiogenesis dependent, and disruption of coordinated tissue growth and angiogenesis in the heart contributes to the progression from adaptive cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Circulation Research
                Circ Res
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0009-7330
                1524-4571
                January 04 2019
                January 04 2019
                : 124
                : 1
                : 121-141
                Affiliations
                [1 ]From the Fraternal Order of Eagles Diabetes Research Center, and Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City.
                Article
                10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.118.311371
                6447311
                30605420
                © 2019

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