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      Mechanistic Aspects of the Role of K Promotion on Cu–Fe-Based Catalysts for Higher Alcohol Synthesis from CO 2 Hydrogenation

      1 , 2 , 1 , 1
      ACS Catalysis
      American Chemical Society (ACS)

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          Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: a review

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            CO2conversion by reverse water gas shift catalysis: comparison of catalysts, mechanisms and their consequences for CO2conversion to liquid fuels

            The reverse water gas shift reaction, its proposed mechanisms, currently used and proposed catalysts and an intensified version of the reaction are evaluated for their abilities to significantly reduced CO 2 atmospheric concentration. Current society is inherently based on liquid hydrocarbon fuel economies and seems to be so for the foreseeable future. Due to the low rates (photocatalysis) and high capital investments (solar-thermo-chemical cycles) of competing technologies, reverse water gas shift (rWGS) catalysis appears as the prominent technology for converting CO 2 to CO, which can then be converted via CO hydrogenation to a liquid fuel of choice (diesel, gasoline, and alcohols). This approach has the advantage of high rates, selectivity, and technological readiness, but requires renewable hydrogen generation from direct (photocatalysis) or indirect (electricity and electrolysis) sources. The goal of this review is to examine the literature on rWGS catalyst types, catalyst mechanisms, and the implications of their use CO 2 conversion processes in the future.
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              Status and prospects in higher alcohols synthesis from syngas.

              Higher alcohols are important compounds with widespread applications in the chemical, pharmaceutical and energy sectors. Currently, they are mainly produced by sugar fermentation (ethanol and isobutanol) or hydration of petroleum-derived alkenes (heavier alcohols), but their direct synthesis from syngas (CO + H2) would comprise a more environmentally-friendly, versatile and economical alternative. Research efforts in this reaction, initiated in the 1930s, have fluctuated along with the oil price and have considerably increased in the last decade due to the interest to exploit shale gas and renewable resources to obtain the gaseous feedstock. Nevertheless, no catalytic system reported to date has performed sufficiently well to justify an industrial implementation. Since the design of an efficient catalyst would strongly benefit from the establishment of synthesis-structure-function relationships and a deeper understanding of the reaction mechanism, this review comprehensively overviews syngas-based higher alcohols synthesis in three main sections, highlighting the advances recently made and the challenges that remain open and stimulate upcoming research activities. The first part critically summarises the formulations and methods applied in the preparation of the four main classes of materials, i.e., Rh-based, Mo-based, modified Fischer-Tropsch and modified methanol synthesis catalysts. The second overviews the molecular-level insights derived from microkinetic and theoretical studies, drawing links to the mechanisms of Fischer-Tropsch and methanol syntheses. Finally, concepts proposed to improve the efficiency of reactors and separation units as well as to utilise CO2 and recycle side-products in the process are described in the third section.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                ACS Catalysis
                ACS Catal.
                American Chemical Society (ACS)
                2155-5435
                2155-5435
                December 18 2020
                November 24 2020
                December 18 2020
                : 10
                : 24
                : 14516-14526
                Affiliations
                [1 ]College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
                [2 ]School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
                Article
                10.1021/acscatal.0c03575
                880130ce-3977-47fe-991d-57fa67b8cb27
                © 2020

                https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-029

                https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-037

                https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-045

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