Aims: The present study evaluated the effects of sitagliptin-insulin against type 2 diabetes mellitus with neuropathy in rats and possible neuroprotective mechanisms. Methods: Diabetes was induced in 32 adult male albino rats by 6-week high-fat high-sugar diet followed by streptozotocin 30 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection. For 4 weeks thereafter, diabetic rats were divided into 4 groups, each group receiving one of the following daily: vehicle (untreated diabetic), insulin 10 IU/kg SC, sitagliptin 30 mg/kg PO or sitagliptin-insulin. We assessed systolic blood pressure (SBP), blood glucose, serum insulin and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), thermal hyperalgesia and sciatic nerve tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and sciatic histopathology. Results: Compared to untreated and insulin-treated groups, sitagliptin decreased SBP, serum AGEs and sciatic MDA and TNF-α, and increased serum insulin and sciatic SOD, but insulin decreased blood glucose more. Sitagliptin-insulin (greater than sitagliptin or insulin alone) superiorly decreased and increased the above respective parameters, and ameliorated hyperalgesia and sciatic histopathological changes, but was similar to insulin in decreasing blood glucose, and similar to sitagliptin in rising serum insulin. Conclusions: Sitagliptin-insulin combination produced hypoglycemic and neuroprotective effect and ameliorated hyperalgesia, oxidative stress and inflammation more than either drug alone. This combination might have clinical efficacy in uncontrolled type 2 diabetes with neuropathy.