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Combination of Sitagliptin and Insulin against Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Neuropathy in Rats: Neuroprotection and Role of Oxidative and Inflammation Stress

b, a, c, d

Pharmacology

S. Karger AG

27449930

10.1159/000448043

Sitagliptin, Insulin, Diabetes mellitus, Neuropathy, Rats

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Abstract

Aims: The present study evaluated the effects of sitagliptin-insulin against type 2 diabetes mellitus with neuropathy in rats and possible neuroprotective mechanisms. Methods: Diabetes was induced in 32 adult male albino rats by 6-week high-fat high-sugar diet followed by streptozotocin 30 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection. For 4 weeks thereafter, diabetic rats were divided into 4 groups, each group receiving one of the following daily: vehicle (untreated diabetic), insulin 10 IU/kg SC, sitagliptin 30 mg/kg PO or sitagliptin-insulin. We assessed systolic blood pressure (SBP), blood glucose, serum insulin and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), thermal hyperalgesia and sciatic nerve tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and sciatic histopathology. Results: Compared to untreated and insulin-treated groups, sitagliptin decreased SBP, serum AGEs and sciatic MDA and TNF-α, and increased serum insulin and sciatic SOD, but insulin decreased blood glucose more. Sitagliptin-insulin (greater than sitagliptin or insulin alone) superiorly decreased and increased the above respective parameters, and ameliorated hyperalgesia and sciatic histopathological changes, but was similar to insulin in decreasing blood glucose, and similar to sitagliptin in rising serum insulin. Conclusions: Sitagliptin-insulin combination produced hypoglycemic and neuroprotective effect and ameliorated hyperalgesia, oxidative stress and inflammation more than either drug alone. This combination might have clinical efficacy in uncontrolled type 2 diabetes with neuropathy.

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Most cited references 29

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Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor is involved in learning and neuroprotection.

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut peptide that, together with its receptor, GLP-1R, is expressed in the brain. Here we show that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) GLP-1 and [Ser(2)]exendin(1-9) (HSEGTFTSD; homologous to a conserved domain in the glucagon/GLP-1 family) enhance associative and spatial learning through GLP-1R. [Ser(2)]exendin(1-9), but not GLP-1, is also active when administered peripherally. GLP-1R-deficient mice have a phenotype characterized by a learning deficit that is restored after hippocampal Glp1r gene transfer. In addition, rats overexpressing GLP-1R in the hippocampus show improved learning and memory. GLP-1R-deficient mice also have enhanced seizure severity and neuronal injury after kainate administration, with an intermediate phenotype in heterozygotes and phenotypic correction after Glp1r gene transfer in hippocampal somatic cells. Systemic administration of [Ser(2)]exendin(1-9) in wild-type animals prevents kainate-induced apoptosis of hippocampal neurons. Brain GLP-1R represents a promising new target for both cognitive-enhancing and neuroprotective agents.
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A new rat model of type 2 diabetes: the fat-fed, streptozotocin-treated rat.

This study was initiated to develop an animal model of type 2 diabetes in a non-obese, outbred rat strain that replicates the natural history and metabolic characteristics of the human syndrome and is suitable for pharmaceutical research. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 31), 7 weeks old, were fed normal chow (12% of calories as fat), or high-fat diet (40% of calories as fat) for 2 weeks and then injected with streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg intravenously). Before STZ injection, fat-fed rats had similar glucose concentrations to chow-fed rats, but significantly higher insulin, free fatty acid (FFA), and triglyceride (TG) concentrations (P < .01 to .0001). Plasma insulin concentrations in response to oral glucose (2 g/kg) were increased 2-fold by fat feeding (P < .01), and adipocyte glucose clearance under maximal insulin stimulation was significantly reduced (P < .001), suggesting that fat feeding induced insulin resistance. STZ injection increased glucose (P < .05), insulin (P < .05), FFA (P < .05), and TG (P < .0001) concentrations in fat-fed rats (Fat-fed/STZ rats) compared with chow-fed, STZ-injected rats (Chow-fed/STZ rats). Fat-fed/STZ rats were not insulin deficient compared with normal chow-fed rats, but had hyperglycemia and a somewhat higher insulin response to an oral glucose challenge (both P < .05). In addition, insulin-stimulated adipocyte glucose clearance was reduced in Fat-fed/STZ rats compared with both chow-fed and Chow-fed/STZ rats (P < .001). Finally, Fat-fed/STZ rats were sensitive to the glucose lowering effects of metformin and troglitazone. In conclusion, Fat-fed/STZ rats provide a novel animal model for type 2 diabetes, simulates the human syndrome, and is suitable for the testing of antidiabetic compounds.
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Rodent models of streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy.

Streptozotocin-induced pancreatic injury is commonly used for creating rodent models of type 1 diabetes which develop renal injury with similarities to human diabetic nephropathy. This model can be established in genetically modified rodents for investigating the role of molecular mechanisms and genetic susceptibility in the development of diabetic nephropathy. In this report, the authors describe and compare the current protocols being used to establish models of diabetic nephropathy in rat and mouse strains using streptozotocin. The authors also list some of the histological criteria and biochemical measurements which are being used to validate these models. In addition, our review explains some of the key aspects involved in these models, including the impact of streptozotocin-dosage, uninephrectomy, hypertension and genetically modified strains, which can each affect the development of disease and the interpretation of findings.

Author and article information

Affiliations
aDepartment of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia; bDepartment of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt; cDepartment of Clinical Pharmacology and dDepartment of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt
Journal
PHA
Pharmacology
10.1159/issn.0031-7012
Pharmacology
Pharmacology
S. Karger AG (Basel, Switzerland karger@123456karger.com http://www.karger.com )
0031-7012
1423-0313
December 2016
23 July 2016
: 98
: 5-6
: 242-250
© 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

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Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 49, Pages: 9
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