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      Transcriptome Analysis and SSR/SNP Markers Information of the Blunt Snout Bream ( Megalobrama amblycephala)

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          Blunt snout bream ( Megalobrama amblycephala) is an herbivorous freshwater fish species native to China and has been recognized as a main aquaculture species in the Chinese freshwater polyculture system with high economic value. Right now, only limited EST resources were available for M. amblycephala. Recent advances in large-scale RNA sequencing provide a fast, cost-effective, and reliable approach to generate large expression datasets for functional genomic analysis, which is especially suitable for non-model species with un-sequenced genomes.

          Methodology and Principal Findings

          Using 454 pyrosequencing, a total of 1,409,706 high quality reads (total length 577 Mbp) were generated from the normalized cDNA of pooled M. amblycephala individuals. These sequences were assembled into 26,802 contigs and 73,675 singletons. After BLAST searches against the NCBI non-redundant (NR) and UniProt databases with an arbitrary expectation value of E −10, over 40,000 unigenes were functionally annotated and classified using the FunCat functional annotation scheme. A comparative genomics approach revealed a substantial proportion of genes expressed in M. amblycephala tanscriptome to be shared across the genomes of zebrafish, medaka, tetraodon, fugu, stickleback, human, mouse, and chicken, and identified a substantial number of potentially novel M. amblycephala genes. A total number of 4,952 SSRs were found and 116 polymorphic loci have been characterized. A significant number of SNPs (25,697) and indels (23,287) were identified based on specific filter criteria in the M. amblycephala.


          This study is the first comprehensive transcriptome analysis for a fish species belonging to the genus Megalobrama. These large EST resources are expected to be valuable for the development of molecular markers, construction of gene-based linkage map, and large-scale expression analysis of M. amblycephala, as well as comparative genome analysis for the genus Megalobrama fish species. The identified SSR and SNP markers will greatly benefit its breeding program and whole genome association studies.

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          Most cited references 32

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          SSAHA: a fast search method for large DNA databases.

          We describe an algorithm, SSAHA (Sequence Search and Alignment by Hashing Algorithm), for performing fast searches on databases containing multiple gigabases of DNA. Sequences in the database are preprocessed by breaking them into consecutive k-tuples of k contiguous bases and then using a hash table to store the position of each occurrence of each k-tuple. Searching for a query sequence in the database is done by obtaining from the hash table the "hits" for each k-tuple in the query sequence and then performing a sort on the results. We discuss the effect of the tuple length k on the search speed, memory usage, and sensitivity of the algorithm and present the results of computational experiments which show that SSAHA can be three to four orders of magnitude faster than BLAST or FASTA, while requiring less memory than suffix tree methods. The SSAHA algorithm is used for high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection and very large scale sequence assembly. Also, it provides Web-based sequence search facilities for Ensembl projects.
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            Rapid transcriptome characterization for a nonmodel organism using 454 pyrosequencing.

            We present a de novo assembly of a eukaryote transcriptome using 454 pyrosequencing data. The Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia; Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) is a prominent species in population biology but had no previous genomic data. Sequencing runs using two normalized complementary DNA collections from a genetically diverse pool of larvae, pupae, and adults yielded 608,053 expressed sequence tags (mean length = 110 nucleotides), which assembled into 48,354 contigs (sets of overlapping DNA segments) and 59,943 singletons. BLAST comparisons confirmed the accuracy of the sequencing and assembly, and indicated the presence of c. 9000 unique genes, along with > 6000 additional microarray-confirmed unannotated contigs. Average depth of coverage was 6.5-fold for the longest 4800 contigs (348-2849 bp in length), sufficient for detecting large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Oligonucleotide microarray probes designed from the assembled sequences showed highly repeatable hybridization intensity and revealed biological differences among individuals. We conclude that 454 sequencing, when performed to provide sufficient coverage depth, allows de novo transcriptome assembly and a fast, cost-effective, and reliable method for development of functional genomic tools for nonmodel species. This development narrows the gap between approaches based on model organisms with rich genetic resources vs. species that are most tractable for ecological and evolutionary studies.
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              Sequencing and de novo analysis of a coral larval transcriptome using 454 GSFlx

              Background New methods are needed for genomic-scale analysis of emerging model organisms that exemplify important biological questions but lack fully sequenced genomes. For example, there is an urgent need to understand the potential for corals to adapt to climate change, but few molecular resources are available for studying these processes in reef-building corals. To facilitate genomics studies in corals and other non-model systems, we describe methods for transcriptome sequencing using 454, as well as strategies for assembling a useful catalog of genes from the output. We have applied these methods to sequence the transcriptome of planulae larvae from the coral Acropora millepora. Results More than 600,000 reads produced in a single 454 sequencing run were assembled into ~40,000 contigs with five-fold average sequencing coverage. Based on sequence similarity with known proteins, these analyses identified ~11,000 different genes expressed in a range of conditions including thermal stress and settlement induction. Assembled sequences were annotated with gene names, conserved domains, and Gene Ontology terms. Targeted searches using these annotations identified the majority of genes associated with essential metabolic pathways and conserved signaling pathways, as well as novel candidate genes for stress-related processes. Comparisons with the genome of the anemone Nematostella vectensis revealed ~8,500 pairs of orthologs and ~100 candidate coral-specific genes. More than 30,000 SNPs were detected in the coral sequences, and a subset of these validated by re-sequencing. Conclusion The methods described here for deep sequencing of the transcriptome should be widely applicable to generate catalogs of genes and genetic markers in emerging model organisms. Our data provide the most comprehensive sequence resource currently available for reef-building corals, and include an extensive collection of potential genetic markers for association and population connectivity studies. The characterization of the larval transcriptome for this widely-studied coral will enable research into the biological processes underlying stress responses in corals and evolutionary adaptation to global climate change.

                Author and article information

                Role: Editor
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                6 August 2012
                : 7
                : 8
                Key Lab of Freshwater Animal Breeding, College of Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Key Lab of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Education, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, People's Republic of China
                Centre of Marine Sciences & University of Algarve, Portugal
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: WW ZG. Performed the experiments: WL XL SY ZG. Analyzed the data: HL CZ ZG. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: HL. Wrote the paper: ZG WW.


                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Pages: 10
                This study was supported by the grants from Modern Agroindustry Technology Research System entitled “Staple Freshwater Fishery Industry Technology System” (No. CARS-46-05), Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 2011PY023, 2011PY043 and 52902-0900202146). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Research Article
                Agricultural Biotechnology
                Genetically Modified Organisms
                Marker-Assisted Selection
                Fish Farming
                Genetic Engineering
                Genetically Modified Organisms
                Genome Analysis Tools
                Genome Sequencing
                Marine Biology
                Fisheries Science



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