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      Dutch founder SDHB exon 3 deletion in patients with pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma in South Africa


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          Screening studies have established genetic risk profiles for diseases such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and pheochromocytoma–paraganglioma (PPGL). Founder effects play an important role in the regional/national epidemiology of endocrine cancers, particularly PPGL. Founder effects in the Netherlands have been described for various diseases, some of which established themselves in South Africa due to Dutch emigration. The role of Dutch founder effects in South Africa has not been explored in PPGL.


          We performed a single-center study in South Africa of the germline genetic causes of isolated/syndromic neuroendocrine tumors.


          Next-generation panel, Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligand-dependent probe amplification for endocrine neoplasia risk genes.


          From a group of 13 patients, we identified 6 with PPGL, 4 with sporadic or familial isolated pituitary adenomas, and 3 with clinical MEN1; genetic variants were identified in 9/13 cases. We identified the Dutch founder exon 3 deletion in SDHB in two apparently unrelated individuals with distinct ethnic backgrounds that had metastatic PPGL. Asymptomatic carriers with this Dutch founder SDHBexon 3 deletion were also identified. Other PPGL patients had variants in SDHB, and SDHD and three MEN1variants were identified among MEN1 and young-onset pituitary adenoma patients.


          This is the first identification of a Dutch founder effect for PPGL in South Africa. Awareness of the presence of this exon 3 SDHB deletion could promote targeted screening at a local level. Insights into PPGL genetics in South Africa could be achieved by studying existing patient databases for Dutch founder mutations in SDHx genes.

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          Clinical presentation and penetrance of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma syndromes.

          The identification of mutations in genes encoding peptides of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) in pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma syndromes has necessitated clear elucidation of genotype-phenotype associations. Our objective was to determine genotype-phenotype associations in a cohort of patients with pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma syndromes and succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) or subunit D (SDHD) mutations. The International SDH Consortium studied 116 individuals (83 affected and 33 clinically unaffected) from 62 families with pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma syndromes and SDHB or SDHD mutations. Clinical data were collected between August 2003 and September 2004 from tertiary referral centers in Australia, France, New Zealand, Germany, United States, Canada, and Scotland. Data were collected on patients with pheochromocytomas and/or paragangliomas with respect to onset of disease, diagnosis, genetic testing, surgery, pathology, and disease progression. Clinical features were evaluated for evidence of genotype-phenotype associations, and penetrance was determined. SDHB mutation carriers were more likely than SDHD mutation carriers to develop extraadrenal pheochromocytomas and malignant disease, whereas SDHD mutation carriers had a greater propensity to develop head and neck paragangliomas and multiple tumors. For the index cases, there was no difference between 43 SDHB and 19 SDHD mutation carriers in the time to first diagnosis (34 vs. 28 yr, respectively; P = 0.3). However, when all mutation carriers were included (n = 112), the estimated age-related penetrance was different for SDHB vs. SDHD mutation carriers (P = 0.008). For clinical follow-up, features of SDHB mutation-associated disease include a later age of onset, extraadrenal (abdominal or thoracic) tumors, and a higher rate of malignancy. In contrast, SDHD mutation carriers, in addition to head and neck paragangliomas, should be observed for multifocal tumors, infrequent malignancy, and the possibility of extraadrenal pheochromocytoma.
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            High frequency of SDHB germline mutations in patients with malignant catecholamine-producing paragangliomas: implications for genetic testing.

            Adrenal and extraadrenal paragangliomas are tumors of chromaffin cells that are usually benign but that may also develop into malignant disease. Mutations of the gene for succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) are associated with a high risk of malignancy, but establishing the precise contribution requires relatively large numbers of patients with well-defined malignancy. We assessed the prevalence of SDHB mutations in a series of patients with malignant paraganglioma. SDHB mutation testing was carried out in 44 consecutive patients with malignant paraganglioma. Clinical characteristics of patients with malignant disease due to SDHB mutations were compared with those without mutations. Pathogenic SDHB mutations were found in 13 of the 44 patients (30%). Close to one third of patients had metastases originating from an adrenal primary tumor, compared with a little over two thirds from an extraadrenal tumor. Among the latter patients, the frequency of SDHB mutations was 48%. This study establishes that missense, nonsense, frameshift, and splice site mutations of the SDHB gene are associated with about half of all malignancies originating from extraadrenal paragangliomas. The high frequency of SDHB germline mutations among patients with malignant disease, particularly when originating from an extraadrenal paraganglioma, may justify a high priority for SDHB germline mutation testing in these patients.
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              Mutation analysis of SDHB and SDHC: novel germline mutations in sporadic head and neck paraganglioma and familial paraganglioma and/or pheochromocytoma

              Background Germline mutations of the SDHD, SDHB and SDHC genes, encoding three of the four subunits of succinate dehydrogenase, are a major cause of hereditary paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma, and demonstrate that these genes are classic tumor suppressors. Succinate dehydrogenase is a heterotetrameric protein complex and a component of both the Krebs cycle and the mitochondrial respiratory chain (succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase or complex II). Methods Using conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE) and direct DNA sequencing to analyse genomic DNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes, here we describe the mutation analysis of the SDHB and SDHC genes in 37 patients with sporadic (i.e. no known family history) head and neck paraganglioma and five pheochromocytoma and/or paraganglioma families. Results Two sporadic patients were found to have a SDHB splice site mutation in intron 4, c.423+1G>A, which produces a mis-spliced transcript with a 54 nucleotide deletion, resulting in an 18 amino acid in-frame deletion. A third patient was found to carry the c.214C>T (p.Arg72Cys) missense mutation in exon 4 of SDHC, which is situated in a highly conserved protein motif that constitutes the quinone-binding site of the succinate: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (SQR) complex in E. coli. Together with our previous results, we found 27 germline mutations of SDH genes in 95 cases (28%) of sporadic head and neck paraganglioma. In addition all index patients of five families showing hereditary pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma were found to carry germline mutations of SDHB: four of which were novel, c.343C>T (p.Arg115X), c.141G>A (p.Trp47X), c.281G>A (p.Arg94Lys), and c.653G>C (p.Trp218Ser), and one reported previously, c.136C>T, p.Arg46X. Conclusion In conclusion, these data indicate that germline mutations of SDHB and SDHC play a minor role in sporadic head and neck paraganglioma and further underline the importance of germline SDHB mutations in cases of familial pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma.

                Author and article information

                Endocr Connect
                Endocr Connect
                Endocrine Connections
                Bioscientifica Ltd (Bristol )
                23 December 2021
                01 January 2022
                : 11
                : 1
                : e210560
                [1 ]University of the Witwatersrand (WITS) Donald Gordon Medical Centre , Parktown, Johannesburg, South Africa
                [2 ]Department of Human Genetics , Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège, Liège Université, Liège, Belgium
                [3 ]Department of Endocrinology , Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
                [4 ]Department of Endocrinology , Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège, Liège Université, Liège, Belgium
                Author notes
                Correspondence should be addressed to A F Daly: adrian.daly@ 123456ulg.ac.be
                Author information
                © The authors

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                : 14 December 2021
                : 23 December 2021

                sdhb,founder mutation,paraganglioma,pheochromocytoma,south africa,dutch,netherlands


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