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      A first checklist of macrofungi for South Africa


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          Macrofungi are considered as organisms that form large fruiting bodies above or below the ground that are visible without the aid of a microscope. These fungi include most basidiomycetes and a small number of ascomycetes. Macrofungi have different ecological roles and uses, where some are edible, medicinal, poisonous, decomposers, saprotrophs, predators and pathogens, and they are often used for innovative biotechnological, medicinal and ecological applications. However, comprehensive checklists, and compilations on the diversity and distribution of mushrooms are lacking for South Africa, which makes regulation, conservation and inclusion in national biodiversity initiatives difficult. In this review, we compiled a checklist of macrofungi for the first time (excluding lichens). Data were compiled based on available literature in journals, books and fungorium records from the National Collection of Fungi . Even if the list is not complete due to numerous unreported species present in South Africa, it still represents an overview of the current knowledge of the macromycetes of South Africa. The list of names enables the assessment of gaps in collections and knowledge on the fungal biodiversity of South Africa, and downstream applications such as defining residency status of species. It provides a foundation for new names to be added in future towards developing a list that will be as complete as possible, and that can be used by a wide audience including scientists, authorities and the public.

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          The magnitude of fungal diversity: the 1.5 million species estimate revisited

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            Fungal Diversity Revisited: 2.2 to 3.8 Million Species.

            The question of how many species of Fungi there are has occasioned much speculation, with figures mostly posited from around half a million to 10 million, and in one extreme case even a sizable portion of the spectacular number of 1 trillion. Here we examine new evidence from various sources to derive an updated estimate of global fungal diversity. The rates and patterns in the description of new species from the 1750s show no sign of approaching an asymptote and even accelerated in the 2010s after the advent of molecular approaches to species delimitation. Species recognition studies of (semi-)cryptic species hidden in morpho-species complexes suggest a weighted average ratio of about an order of magnitude for the number of species recognized after and before such studies. New evidence also comes from extrapolations of plant:fungus ratios, with information now being generated from environmental sequence studies, including comparisons of molecular and fieldwork data from the same sites. We further draw attention to undescribed species awaiting discovery in biodiversity hot spots in the tropics, little-explored habitats (such as lichen-inhabiting fungi), and material in collections awaiting study. We conclude that the commonly cited estimate of 1.5 million species is conservative and that the actual range is properly estimated at 2.2 to 3.8 million. With 120,000 currently accepted species, it appears that at best just 8%, and in the worst case scenario just 3%, are named so far. Improved estimates hinge particularly on reliable statistical and phylogenetic approaches to analyze the rapidly increasing amount of environmental sequence data.
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              Immunomodulating and anticancer agents in the realm of macromycetes fungi (macrofungi).

              Nowadays macrofungi are distinguished as important natural resources of immunomodulating and anticancer agents and with regard to the increase in diseases involving immune dysfunction, cancer, autoimmune conditions in recent years, applying such immunomodulator agents especially with the natural original is vital. These compounds belong mainly to polysaccharides especially beta-d-glucan derivates, glycopeptide/protein complexes (polysaccharide-peptide/protein complexes), proteoglycans, proteins and triterpenoids. Among polysaccharides, beta(1-->3)-d-glucans and their peptide/protein derivates and among proteins, fungal immunomodulatory proteins (Fips) have more important role in immunomodulating and antitumor activities. Immunomodulating and antitumor activity of these metabolites related to their effects to act of immune effecter cells such as hematpoietic stem cells, lymphocytes, macrophages, T cells, dendritic cells (DCs), and natural killer (NK) cells involved in the innate and adaptive immunity, resulting in the production of biologic response modifiers. In this review we have introduced the medicinal mushrooms' metabolites with immunomoduling and antitumor activities according to immunological evidences and then demonstrated their effects on innate and adaptive immunity and also the mechanisms of activation of immune responses and signaling cascade. In addition, their molecular structure and their relation to these activities have been shown. The important instances of these metabolites along with their immunomodulating and/or antitumor activities isolated from putative medicinal mushrooms are also introduced.

                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                05 February 2020
                : 63
                : 1-48
                [1 ] Department of Genetics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, Republic of South Africa University of the Free State Bloemfontein South Africa
                [2 ] Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Bamenda, P.O. Box 39, Bambili, North West Region, Cameroon University of Bamenda Bambili Cambodia
                [3 ] MushroomFundi, Cape Town, South Africa MushroomFundi Cape Town South Africa
                [4 ] National Collection of Fungi, Mycology Unit, Plant Health and Protection, Agricultural Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa National Collection of Fungi Pretoria South Africa
                [5 ] School of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, Karatina University, P.O. Box 1957, Karatina 10101, Kenya Karatina University Karatina Kenya
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Marieka Gryzenhout ( gryzenhoutm@ 123456ufs.ac.za )

                Academic editor: G. Rambold

                Tonjock Rosemary Kinge, Gary Goldman, Adriaana Jacobs, George Gatere Ndiritu, Marieka Gryzenhout

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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