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      Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure on Hemodialysis

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          To characterize uremic cardiac autonomic neuropathy, we measured plasma catecholamines, analyzed the 24-hour heart rate variability (HRV), and acquired serial images with <sup>123</sup>I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) in 44 patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis and in 14 controls. Time-domain measures were calculated using the Marquette HRV program. MIBG clearance rates from the heart and lung were evaluated on planar images, and the regional MIBG uptake in the left ventricular myocardium was evaluated with single-photon emission computed tomography. Compared with controls, plasma dopamine and norepinephrine levels were elevated (p < 0.001 and p = 0.03, respectively), and all the time-domain measures of HRV were reduced in the patients (p < 0.001). The MIBG clearance rate from the heart was higher (p < 0.001), that from the lung was lower (p < 0.001), and the myocardial MIBG distribution was more heterogeneous in patients than in controls (total uptake score p ≤ 0.03). These variables were similar between 26 patients without and 18 patients with hypertension. Uremic cardiac autonomic neuropathy may be characterized by high plasma levels of dopamine and norepinephrine, reduced HRV, and abnormal MIBG kinetics in the heart with heterogeneous myocardial MIBG distribution, suggesting cardiac sympathetic overactivity and parasympathetic deterioration. In addition, abnormal MIBG kinetics in the lung may imply pulmonary sympathetic nervous dysfunction and/or endothelial dysfunction in uremic patients.

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          Depressed heart rate variability as an independent predictor of death in chronic congestive heart failure secondary to ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.

          After acute myocardial infarction, depressed heart rate variability (HRV) has been proven to be a powerful independent predictor of a poor outcome. Although patients with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) have also markedly impaired HRV, the prognostic value of HRV analysis in these patients remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HRV parameters could predict survival in 102 consecutive patients with moderate to severe CHF (90 men, mean age 58 years, New York Heart Association [NYHA] class II to IV, CHF due to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy in 24 patients and ischemic heart disease in 78 patients, ejection fraction [EF], 26%; peak oxygen consumption, 16.9 ml/kg/min) after exclusion of patients in atrial fibrilation with diabetes or with chronic renal failure. In the prognostic analysis (Cox proportional-hazards model, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis), the following factors were investigated: age, CHF etiology, NYHA class, EF, peak oxygen consumption, presence of ventricular tachycardia on Holter monitoring, and HRV measures derived from 24-hour electrocardiography monitoring, calculated in the time (standard deviation of all normal RR intervals [SDNN], standard deviation of 5-minute RR intervals [SDANN], mean of all 5-minute standard deviations of RR intervals [SD], root-mean-square of difference of successive RR intervals [rMSSD], and percentage of adjacent RR intervals >50 ms different [pNN50]) and frequency domain (total power [TP], power within low-frequency band [LF], and power within high-frequency band [HF]). During follow-up of 584 +/- 405 days (365 days in all who survived), 19 patients (19%) died (mean time to death: 307 +/- 315 days, range 3 to 989). Cox's univariate analysis identified the following factors to be predictors of death: NYHA (p = 0.003), peak oxygen consumption (p = 0.01), EF (p = 0.02), ventricular tachycardia on Holter monitoring (p = 0.05), and among HRV measures: SDNN (p = 0.004), SDANN (p = 0.003), SD (p = 0.02), and LF (p = 0.003). In multivariate analysis, HRV parameters (SDNN, SDANN, LF) were found to predict survival independently of NYHA functional class, EF, peak oxygen consumption, and ventricular tachycardia on Holter monitoring. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed SDNN 100 ms (p = 0.008). The coexistence of SDNN < 100 ms and a peak oxygen consumption < 14 ml/kg/min allowed identification of a group of 18 patients with a particularly poor prognosis (1-year survival 63% vs 94% in the remaining patients, p <0.001). We conclude that depressed HRV on 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography monitoring is an independent risk factor for a poor prognosis in patients with CHF. Whether analysis of HRV could be recommended in the risk stratification for better management of patients with CHF needs further investigation.
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            Metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging in diabetes mellitus: assessment of cardiac sympathetic denervation and its relation to autonomic dysfunction and silent myocardial ischemia.

            This study in patients with diabetes mellitus was undertaken 1) to evaluate cardiac sympathetic innervation in diabetic patients using metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging; 2) to study the relation between autonomic function assessed by clinical maneuvers and abnormalities in MIBG uptake; and 3) to examine the basis for our previous observation of an association between abnormalities in autonomic nervous system dysfunction and silent myocardial ischemia. The clinical detection of autonomic dysfunction in diabetes mellitus has been linked to both abnormal perception of pain, including angina, and poor prognosis. Uptake of MIBG was measured by dual-isotope imaging in 23 normal subjects and 65 asymptomatic diabetic patients. Silent myocardial ischemia was defined as the presence of a reversible perfusion defect in patients with ST segment depression. The MIBG uptake in the diabetic patients was significantly lower than that in normal subjects in the apex (67 +/- 17% vs. 82 +/- 7%, p = 0.0001), distal third (77 +/- 11% vs. 85 +/- 3%, p = 0.0001), proximal third (77 +/- 9% vs. 84 +/- 3%, p = 0.0001) and base (71 +/- 9% vs. 80 +/- 4%, p = 0.0001) of the left ventricle. Similarly, MIBG uptake was variable across different vascular territories. When MIBG uptake was corrected for perfusion abnormalities, diabetic patients had a greater MIBG uptake defect than normal subjects on visual score assessment (16 +/- 13 vs. 8 +/- 7%, p = 0.0002) and on quantitative MIBG mismatch assessment (13 +/- 15% vs. 2 +/- 2%, p = 0.0001). Diabetic patients with versus without autonomic dysfunction had more extensive MIBG uptake mismatch (17 +/- 17% vs. 4 +/- 6%, p = 0.0001). There was a greater diffuse abnormality in diabetic patients with versus without silent myocardial ischemia detected by sestamibi/MIBG uptake ratio (68 +/- 35% vs. 19 +/- 33%, p = 0.001). Sympathetic cardiac innervation in normal subjects is inhomogeneous. In contrast to normal subjects, diabetic patients have evidence of a significant reduction in MIBG uptake, most likely on the basis of autonomic dysfunction. Furthermore, diabetic patients with silent myocardial ischemia have evidence of a diffuse abnormality in MIBG uptake, suggesting that abnormalities in pain perception may be linked to sympathetic denervation.
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              Influence of race on the prediction of cardiac events with stress technetium-99m sestamibi tomographic imaging in patients with stable angina pectoris.

              The prognostic value of myocardial perfusion imaging in African-Americans is unknown. This study compared the prediction of cardiac events of stress technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging in symptomatic Caucasian and African-American patients. Prospectively collected stress Tc-99m sestamibi tomographic imaging data from 4 medical centers, with follow-up information in 1,086 Caucasian and African-American patients, were analyzed in a core statistical laboratory. Primary events of cardiac death and nonfatal myocardial infarction and secondary events of all-cause mortality were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional-hazards multivariable model. Normal images in both African-Americans and Caucasians were associated with a low-annual cardiac event rate, whereas abnormal images were significantly associated with a higher cardiac event rate. The highest predictor of cardiac events was multivessel abnormality in both races. Use of this technique could identify patients at high risk and potentially reduce the high-cardiac event rate in African-Americans by utilizing appropriate therapies.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                April 2000
                30 March 2000
                : 84
                : 4
                : 312-319
                aDepartment of Medicine III, bUrology, cMedicine I, and dClinical Laboratories, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, and eDepartment of Medicine, Red Cross Hospital, Hamamatsu, Japan
                45605 Nephron 2000;84:312–319
                © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 2, Tables: 4, References: 53, Pages: 8
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