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      A 4-Year, Open-Label, Multicenter, Randomized Trial of Genotropin® Growth Hormone in Patients with Idiopathic Short Stature: Analysis of 4-Year Data Comparing Efficacy, Efficiency, and Safety between an Individualized, Target-Driven Regimen and Standard Dosing

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          Background/Aims: Growth hormone (GH) treatment regimens for children with non-GH-deficient, idiopathic short stature (ISS) have not been optimized. To compare the efficacy, efficiency, and safety of an individualized, target-driven GH regimen with standard weight-based dosing after 4 years of treatment. Methods: This is a 4-year, open-label, multicenter, randomized trial comparing individualized, formula-based dosing of Genotropin® versus a widely used ISS dose of Genotropin®. Subjects were prepubertal, had a bone age of 3-10 years for males and 3-9 years for females, were naive to GH treatment, and had a height standard deviation score (Ht SDS) of -3 to -2.25, a height velocity <25th percentile for their bone age, and peak stimulated GH >10 ng/ml. After the first 2 years, the individualized-dosing group was further randomized to either 0.18 or 0.24 mg/kg/week. Results: At 4 years, subjects in all treatment regimens achieved similar average height gains of +1.3 SDS; however, the individualized dosing regimen utilized less GH to achieve an equivalent height gain. Conclusion: Individualized, formula-based GH dosing, followed by a dose reduction after 2 years, provides a more cost-effective growth improvement in patients with ISS than currently employed weight-based regimens.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Tables for predicting adult height from skeletal age: revised for use with the Greulich-Pyle hand standards.

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            Prediction of response to growth hormone treatment in short children born small for gestational age: analysis of data from KIGS (Pharmacia International Growth Database).

            A model was developed that allows physicians to individualize GH treatment in children born short for gestational age (SGA) who fail to show spontaneous catch-up growth. Data from children (n = 613) in a large pharmacoepidemiological survey, the KIGS (Pharmacia International Growth Database), or who had participated in clinical trials were used to develop the model. Another group of similar children (n = 68) from KIGS was used for validation. In the first year of GH treatment, the growth response correlated positively with GH dose, weight at the start of GH treatment, and midparental height SD score and negatively with age at treatment start. Using this model, 52% of the variability of the growth response could be explained, with a mean error SD of 1.3 cm. GH dose was the most important response predictor (35% of variability), followed by age at treatment start. The second year growth response was best predicted by a three-parameter model (height velocity in yr 1 of treatment, age at start of treatment, and GH dose), which accounted for 34% of the variability, with an error SD of 1.1 cm. The first year response to GH treatment was the most important predictor of the second year response, accounting for 29% of the variability. No statistically significant differences between the predicted and observed growth responses were found when the models were applied to the validation groups. In conclusion, using simple variables, we have developed a model that can be used in clinical practice to adjust the GH dose to achieve the desired growth response in patients born SGA. Furthermore, this model can be used to provide patients with a realistic expectation of treatment and may help to identify compliance problems or other underlying causes of treatment failure.
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              Dose-dependent effect of growth hormone on final height in children with short stature without growth hormone deficiency.

              The effect of GH therapy in short non-GH-deficient children, especially those with idiopathic short stature (ISS), has not been clearly established owing to the lack of controlled trials continuing until final height (FH). The aim of the study was to investigate the effect on growth to FH of two GH doses given to short children, mainly with ISS, compared with untreated controls. A randomized, controlled, long-term multicenter trial was conducted in Sweden. Two doses of GH (Genotropin) were administered, 33 or 67 microg/kg.d; control subjects were untreated. A total of 177 subjects with short stature were enrolled. Of these, 151 were included in the intent to treat (AllITT) population, and 108 in the per protocol (AllPP) population. Analysis of ISS subjects included 126 children in the ITT (ISSITT) population and 68 subjects in the PP (ISSPP) population. We measured FH sd score (SDS), difference in SDS to midparenteral height (diff MPHSDS), and gain in heightSDS. After 5.9+/-1.1 yr on GH therapy, the FHSDS in the AllPP population treated with GH vs. controls was -1.5+/-0.81 (33 microg/kg.d, -1.7+/-0.70; and 67 microg/kg.d, -1.4+/-0.86; P<0.032), vs. -2.4+/-0.85 (P<0.001); the diff MPHSDS was -0.2+/-1.0 vs. -1.0+/-0.74 (P<0.001); and the gain in heightSDS was 1.3+/-0.78 vs. 0.2+/-0.69 (P<0.001). GH therapy was safe and had no impact on time to onset of puberty. A dose-response relationship identified after 1 yr remained to FH for all growth outcome variables in all four populations. GH treatment significantly increased FH in ISS children in a dose-dependent manner, with a mean gain of 1.3 SDS (8 cm) and a broad range of response from no gain to 3 SDS compared to a mean gain of 0.2 SDS in the untreated controls.

                Author and article information

                Horm Res Paediatr
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                September 2015
                01 May 2015
                : 84
                : 2
                : 79-87
                aUniversity of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Md., bGoryeb Childrens Hospital, Morristown, N.J., cPfizer, Inc., dIcahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, and eNew York University, New York, N.Y., fKeck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, Calif., gUniversity of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, Calif., hCook Children's Medical Center, Fort Worth, Tex., iNemours Children's Hospital, Orlando, Fla., jUniversity of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and kPediatric Alliance, Pittsburgh, Pa., and lHarvard Medical School, Boston, Mass., USA
                Author notes
                *Debra Counts, MD, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 22 S. Greene St., Rm N6W84, Baltimore, MD 21201 (USA), E-Mail debcounts@outlook.com
                381642 Horm Res Paediatr 2015;84:79-87
                © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) ( http://www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, References: 26, Pages: 9
                Original Paper


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