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      Oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) from grape seed extract suppress the activity of ABC transporters in overcoming chemoresistance in colorectal cancer cells

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      Carcinogenesis

      Oxford University Press (OUP)

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          Abstract

          Multidrug resistance is a major hindrance in managing cancer. By performing a series of experiments in chemoresistant colorectal cancer cell lines, we demonstrate that oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) from grape seed extracts can sensitize both acquired (HCT116-FOr cells) and innately chemoresistant (H716 cells) cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs, 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and oxaliplatin, by inhibiting adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins. When combined with chemotherapeutic drugs, OPCs significantly inhibited growth of the chemoresistant cells ( P < 0.05 to < 0.001) and decreased the expression of several key ABC transporters. Moreover, the activity of the ABC transporters was also significantly decreased by OPCs in the cell lines ( P < 0.05). We further confirmed that co-treatment with OPCs sensitized the chemoresistant cells to 5FU and oxaliplatin, as observed by improvement in cell cycle arrest, double-strand breaks and p53 accumulation in these cells. In addition, we confirmed that co-administration of OPCs with chemotherapeutic drugs significantly decreased chemoresistant xenograft tumor growth in mice ( P < 0.05). Together, our study illuminates the downregulation of multiple ABC transporters as a mechanism by which OPCs overcome chemoresistance in cancer cells and may serve as adjunctive treatments in patients with refractory colorectal cancer. We demonstrate using cell lines and mice xenograft models that oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) from grape seed extracts can sensitize both acquired and innately chemoresistant cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs, 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and oxaliplatin, by inhibiting adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins.

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          Most cited references 35

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          P-glycoprotein: from genomics to mechanism.

          Resistance to chemically different natural product anti-cancer drugs (multidrug resistance, or MDR) results from decreased drug accumulation, resulting from expression of one or more ATP-dependent efflux pumps. The first of these to be identified was P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the product of the human MDR1 gene, localized to chromosome 7q21. P-gp is a member of the large ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of proteins. Although its crystallographic 3-D structure is yet to be determined, sequence analysis and comparison to other ABC family members suggest a structure consisting of two transmembrane (TM) domains, each with six TM segments, and two nucleotide-binding domains. In the epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and kidney, and capillaries of the brain, testes, and ovaries, P-gp acts as a barrier to the uptake of xenobiotics, and promotes their excretion in the bile and urine. Polymorphisms in the MDR1 gene may affect the pharmacokinetics of many commonly used drugs, including anticancer drugs. Substrate recognition of many different drugs occurs within the TM domains in multiple-overlapping binding sites. We have proposed a model for how ATP energizes transfer of substrates from these binding sites on P-gp to the outside of the cell, which accounts for the apparent stoichiometry of two ATPs hydrolysed per molecule of drug transported. Understanding of the biology, genetics, and biochemistry of P-gp promises to improve the treatment of cancer and explain the pharmacokinetics of many commonly used drugs.
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            Role of the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) in drug transport--an update.

            The human breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, gene symbol ABCG2) is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporter. It was so named because it was initially cloned from a multidrug-resistant breast cancer cell line where it was found to confer resistance to chemotherapeutic agents such as mitoxantrone and topotecan. Since its discovery in 1998, the substrates of BCRP have been rapidly expanding to include not only therapeutic agents but also physiological substances such as estrone-3-sulfate, 17β-estradiol 17-(β-D-glucuronide) and uric acid. Likewise, at least hundreds of BCRP inhibitors have been identified. Among normal human tissues, BCRP is highly expressed on the apical membranes of the placental syncytiotrophoblasts, the intestinal epithelium, the liver hepatocytes, the endothelial cells of brain microvessels, and the renal proximal tubular cells, contributing to the absorption, distribution, and elimination of drugs and endogenous compounds as well as tissue protection against xenobiotic exposure. As a result, BCRP has now been recognized by the FDA to be one of the key drug transporters involved in clinically relevant drug disposition. We published a highly-accessed review article on BCRP in 2005, and much progress has been made since then. In this review, we provide an update of current knowledge on basic biochemistry and pharmacological functions of BCRP as well as its relevance to drug resistance and drug disposition.
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              The role of ABC transporters in ovarian cancer progression and chemoresistance.

              Over 80% of ovarian cancer patients develop chemoresistance which results in a lethal course of the disease. A well-established cause of chemoresistance involves the family of ATP-binding cassette transporters, or ABC transporters that transport a wide range of substrates including metabolic products, nutrients, lipids, and drugs across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. Expressions of various ABC transporters, shown to reduce the intracellular accumulation of chemotherapy drugs, are increased following chemotherapy and impact on ovarian cancer survival. Although clinical trials to date using ABC transporter inhibitors have been disappointing, ABC transporter inhibition remains an attractive potential adjuvant to chemotherapy. A greater understanding of their physiological functions and role in ovarian cancer chemoresistance will be important for the development of more effective targeted therapies. This article will review the role of the ABC transporter family in ovarian cancer progression and chemoresistance as well as the clinical attempts used to date to reverse chemoresistance.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Carcinogenesis
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                0143-3334
                1460-2180
                March 2019
                May 14 2019
                December 29 2018
                March 2019
                May 14 2019
                December 29 2018
                : 40
                : 3
                : 412-421
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Center for Gastrointestinal Research, Center for Translational Genomics and Oncology, Baylor Scott and White Research Institute, and Charles A. Sammons Cancer Center, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA
                Article
                10.1093/carcin/bgy184
                6514448
                30596962
                © 2018

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