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      Effect of excessive water intake on body weight, body mass index, body fat, and appetite of overweight female participants

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          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Objective:

          Drinking plenty of water is commonly recommended in weight loss regimens; however, very limited scientific evidence is available to justify this. Here we studied the effect of drinking 1.5 L of water, over and above the usual intake on body weight, body mass index (BMI), body fat, and appetite score in overweight female participants.

          Materials and Methods:

          The study was done on 50 overweight female participants, who were instructed to drink 500 mL of water, three times a day 30 min before breakfast, lunch, and dinner. The 1.5 L water intake was over and above their daily water intake and was continued for 8 consecutive weeks. Body weight, BMI, body fat, and appetite score was measured pre and post-study; and the values were compared by paired t-test using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 14.0.1.

          Results:

          All the parameters tested were lower after 8 weeks: body weight (pre-study 65.86 ± 3.614 kg vs post-study 64.42 ± 3.704 kg; P < 0.01); BMI (pre-study 26.7002 ± 0.9423 vs post-study 26.1224 ± 1.0632; P < 0.01); sum of skinfold thickness (pre-study 79.626 ± 10.385 mm vs post-study 76.578 ± 10.477 mm; P < 0.01); and the appetite score (pre-study 36.880 ± 4.170 vs post-study 34.673 ± 3.845; P < 0.01).

          Conclusions:

          Our study establishes the role of drinking 1.5 L of excessive water in weight reduction, body fat reduction, and appetite suppression in overweight female participants.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Beyond body mass index.

           A Prentice,  S. Jebb (2001)
          Body mass index (BMI) is the cornerstone of the current classification system for obesity and its advantages are widely exploited across disciplines ranging from international surveillance to individual patient assessment. However, like all anthropometric measurements, it is only a surrogate measure of body fatness. Obesity is defined as an excess accumulation of body fat, and it is the amount of this excess fat that correlates with ill-health. We propose therefore that much greater attention should be paid to the development of databases and standards based on the direct measurement of body fat in populations, rather than on surrogate measures. In support of this argument we illustrate a wide range of conditions in which surrogate anthropometric measures (especially BMI) provide misleading information about body fat content. These include: infancy and childhood; ageing; racial differences; athletes; military and civil forces personnel; weight loss with and without exercise; physical training; and special clinical circumstances. We argue that BMI continues to serve well for many purposes, but that the time is now right to initiate a gradual evolution beyond BMI towards standards based on actual measurements of body fat mass.
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            Reproducibility, power and validity of visual analogue scales in assessment of appetite sensations in single test meal studies.

            To examine reproducibility and validity of visual analogue scales (VAS) for measurement of appetite sensations, with and without a diet standardization prior to the test days. On two different test days the subjects recorded their appetite sensations before breakfast and every 30 min during the 4.5 h postprandial period under exactly the same conditions. 55 healthy men (age 25.6+/-0.6 y, BMI 22.6+/-0.3 kg¿m2). VAS were used to record hunger, satiety, fullness, prospective food consumption, desire to eat something fatty, salty, sweet or savoury, and palatability of the meals. Subsequently an ad libitum lunch was served and energy intake was recorded. Reproducibility was assessed by the coefficient of repeatability (CR) of fasting, mean 4.5 h and peak/nadir values. CRs (range 20-61 mm) were larger for fasting and peak/nadir values compared with mean 4.5 h values. No parameter seemed to be improved by diet standardization. Using a paired design and a study power of 0.8, a difference of 10 mm on fasting and 5 mm on mean 4.5 h ratings can be detected with 18 subjects. When using desires to eat specific types of food or an unpaired design, more subjects are needed due to considerable variation. The best correlations of validity were found between 4.5 h mean VAS of the appetite parameters and subsequent energy intake (r=+/-0.50-0.53, P<0.001). VAS scores are reliable for appetite research and do not seem to be influenced by prior diet standardization. However, consideration should be given to the specific parameters being measured, their sensitivity and study power. International Journal of Obesity (2000)24, 38-48
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              Results from an Online Computer-Tailored Weight Management Intervention for Overweight Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial

              Background Prevention of weight gain has been suggested as an important strategy in the prevention of obesity and people who are overweight are a specifically important group to target. Currently there is a lack of weight gain prevention interventions that can reach large numbers of people. Therefore, we developed an Internet-delivered, computer-tailored weight management intervention for overweight adults. The focus of the intervention was on making small (100 kcal per day), but sustained changes in dietary intake (DI) or physical activity (PA) behaviors in order to maintain current weight or achieve modest weight loss. Self-regulation theory was used as the basis of the intervention. Objective This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of the computer-tailored intervention in weight-related anthropometric measures (Body Mass Index, skin folds and waist circumference) and energy balance-related behaviors (physical activity; intake of fat, snacks and sweetened drinks) in a randomized controlled trial. Methods The tailored intervention (TI) was compared to a generic information website (GI). Participants were 539 overweight adults (mean age 47.8 years, mean Body Mass Index (BMI) 28.04, 30.9% male, 10.7% low educated) who where recruited among the general population and among employees from large companies by means of advertisements and flyers. Anthropometric measurements were measured by trained research assistants at baseline and 6-months post-intervention. DI and PA behaviors were assessed at baseline, 1-month and 6-month post-intervention, using self-reported questionnaires. Results Repeated measurement analyses showed that BMI remained stable over time and that there were no statistically significant differences between the study groups (BMI: TI=28.09, GI=27.61, P=.09). Similar results were found for waist circumference and skin fold thickness. Amount of physical activity increased and intake of fat, snacks and sweetened drinks decreased during the course of the study, but there were no differences between the study groups (eg, fat intake: TI=15.4, GI=15.9, P=.74). The first module of the tailored intervention was visited by almost all participants, but only 15% completed all four modules of the tailored intervention, while 46% completed the three modules of the general information intervention. The tailored intervention was considered more personally relevant (TI=3.20, GI=2.83, P=.001), containing more new information (TI=3.11, GI=2.73, P=.003) and having longer texts (TI=3.20, GI=3.07, P=.01), while there were no group differences on other process measures such as attractiveness and comprehensibility of the information (eg, attractive design: TI=3.22, GI=3.16, P=.58). Conclusions The online, computer-tailored weight management intervention resulted in changes in the desired direction, such as stabilization of weight and improvements in dietary intake, but the intervention was not more effective in preventing weight gain or modifying dietary and physical activity behaviors than generic information. A possible reason for the absence of intervention effects is sub-optimal use of the intervention and the self-regulation components. Further research is therefore needed to gain more insight into how the intervention and exposure to its contents can be improved. Trial Registration NTR1862; http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/trial.aspx?trialid=NTR1862
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Nat Sci Biol Med
                J Nat Sci Biol Med
                JNSBM
                Journal of Natural Science, Biology, and Medicine
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                0976-9668
                2229-7707
                Jul-Dec 2014
                : 5
                : 2
                : 340-344
                Affiliations
                Department of Physiology, Padmashree Dr. Dnyandeo Yashwantrao Patil Medical College and Hospital, Nerul, Maharashtra, India
                [1 ] Seth Gordhandas Sunderdas Medical College and King Edward Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Vinu Ashok Kumar Vij, Department of Physiology, Padmashree Dr. Dnyandeo Yashwantrao Patil Medical College and Hospital, Nerul, Navi Mumbai, India. E-mail: vijvinuvij@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                JNSBM-5-340
                10.4103/0976-9668.136180
                4121911
                Copyright: © Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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