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      Status of and strategies for improving adherence to COPD treatment

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          Abstract

          Despite the wide application of adherence as a concept, the definition, evaluation and improvement of the adherence to treatment by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) still present some challenges. First, it is necessary to clearly define the concepts of treatment adherence, compliance and persistence. Second, it is critical to consider the various methods of evaluating and quantifying adherence when interpreting adherence studies. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of the different ways of measuring treatment adherence should be taken into account. Another subject of some debate is the number of variables associated with COPD treatment adherence. Adherence is a complex concept that goes beyond the dosage or the use of inhalation devices, and a number of variables are involved in determining adherence, from the clinical aspects of the disease to the patient’s confidence in the doctor’s expertise and the level of social support experienced by the patient. Notably, despite these challenges, the importance of adherence has been well established by clinical trials and routine clinical practice. The available evidence consistently shows the substantial impact that a lack of adherence has on the control of the disease and its long-term prognosis. For these reasons, the correct evaluation of therapeutic adherence should be a key objective in clinical interviews of patients. In recent years, various initiatives for improving adherence have been explored. All these initiatives have been based on patient education. Therefore, health care professionals should be aware of the issues pertaining to adherence and take the opportunity to educate patients each time they contact the health care system.

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          Most cited references 77

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          Concurrent and predictive validity of a self-reported measure of medication adherence.

          Adherence to the medical regimen continues to rank as a major clinical problem in the management of patients with essential hypertension, as in other conditions treated with drugs and life-style modification. This article reviews the psychometric properties and tests the concurrent and predictive validity of a structured four-item self-reported adherence measure (alpha reliability = 0.61), which can be easily integrated into the medical visit. Items in the scale address barriers to medication-taking and permit the health care provider to reinforce positive adherence behaviors. Data on patient adherence to the medical regimen were collected at the end of a formalized 18-month educational program. Blood pressure measurements were recorded throughout a 3-year follow-up period. Results showed the scale to demonstrate both concurrent and predictive validity with regard to blood pressure control at 2 years and 5 years, respectively. Seventy-five percent of the patients who scored high on the four-item scale at year 2 had their blood pressure under adequate control at year 5, compared with 47% under control at year 5 for those patients scoring low (P less than 0.01).
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            Predictive validity of a medication adherence measure in an outpatient setting.

            This study examines the psychometric properties and tests the concurrent and predictive validity of a structured, self-reported medication adherence measure in patients with hypertension. The authors also assessed various psychosocial determinants of adherence, such as knowledge, social support, satisfaction with care, and complexity of the medical regimen. A total of 1367 patients participated in the study; mean age was 52.5 years, 40.8% were male, 76.5% were black, 50.8% graduated from high school, 26% were married, and 54.1% had income <$5,000. The 8-item medication adherence scale was reliable (alpha=.83) and significantly associated with blood pressure control (P<.05). Using a cutpoint of <6, the sensitivity of the measure to identify patients with poor blood pressure control was estimated to be 93%, and the specificity was 53%. The medication adherence measure proved to be reliable, with good concurrent and predictive validity in primarily low-income, minority patients with hypertension and might function as a screening tool in outpatient settings with other patient groups.
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              Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease 2017 Report: GOLD Executive Summary.

              This Executive Summary of the Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of COPD (GOLD) 2017 Report focuses primarily on the revised and novel parts of the document. The most significant changes include: 1) the assessment of COPD has been refined to separate the spirometric assessment from symptom evaluation. ABCD groups are now proposed to be derived exclusively from patient symptoms and their history of exacerbations; 2) for each of the groups A to D, escalation strategies for pharmacological treatments are proposed; 3) the concept of de-escalation of therapy is introduced in the treatment assessment scheme; 4) nonpharmacologic therapies are comprehensively presented and; 5) the importance of comorbid conditions in managing COPD is reviewed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                COPD
                copd
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                10 July 2019
                2019
                : 14
                : 1503-1515
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Unidad Médico-Quirúrgica de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla (IBiS), Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío/Universidad de Sevilla , Seville, Spain
                [2 ]Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), Instituto de Salud Carlos III , Madrid, Spain
                Author notes
                Correspondence: José Luis López-Campos Unidad Médico-Quirúrgica de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío , Avda. Manuel Siurot, s/n. 41013Seville, Spain Tel +34 95 501 3167 Fax +34 95 501 3167 Email lcampos@ 123456separ.es
                Article
                170848
                10.2147/COPD.S170848
                6628097
                © 2019 López-Campos et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, References: 100, Pages: 13
                Categories
                Review

                Respiratory medicine

                medication reminders, inhaled therapy, adherence, copd

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