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      Interleukin-17A Deficiency Attenuated Emphysema and Bone Loss in Mice Exposed to Cigarette Smoke

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          Abstract

          Background and Purpose

          Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common chronic inflammatory disease, which is associated with various comorbidities including osteoporosis. Interleukin(IL)-17 has been reported to play important roles in the pathogenesis of COPD and also associated with bone destruction in inflammatory diseases. However, the role of IL-17A in COPD-related osteoporosis is yet unknown. The purpose of our study was to investigate the potential contribution of IL-17A in COPD-related bone loss.

          Materials and Methods

          We examined the bone mass and bone microarchitecture in wild-type and IL-17A -/- mice exposed to long-term cigarette smoke (CS). Osteoclast activities and the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) in bone tissues were assessed, and the blood levels of inflammatory cytokines were measured.

          Results

          Less bone loss as well as attenuated emphysema were shown in IL-17A -/- mice compared with wild-type mice. CS-exposed IL-17A -/- mice had decreased TRAP+ osteoclast numbers and lower RANKL expression compared with CS-exposed wild-type mice. Inflammatory cytokines including IL-6 and IL-1β in circulation were decreased in IL-17A -/- mice exposed to CS compared with wild-type mice.

          Conclusion

          This study indicates that IL-17A is involved in CS-induced bone loss and may be a common link between COPD and osteoporosis.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Osteoporosis: now and the future.

          Osteoporosis is a common disease characterised by a systemic impairment of bone mass and microarchitecture that results in fragility fractures. With an ageing population, the medical and socioeconomic effect of osteoporosis, particularly postmenopausal osteoporosis, will increase further. A detailed knowledge of bone biology with molecular insights into the communication between bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts and the orchestrating signalling network has led to the identification of novel therapeutic targets. Novel treatment strategies have been developed that aim to inhibit excessive bone resorption and increase bone formation. The most promising novel treatments include: denosumab, a monoclonal antibody for receptor activator of NF-κB ligand, a key osteoclast cytokine; odanacatib, a specific inhibitor of the osteoclast protease cathepsin K; and antibodies against the proteins sclerostin and dickkopf-1, two endogenous inhibitors of bone formation. This overview discusses these novel therapies and explains their underlying physiology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Activated T cells regulate bone loss and joint destruction in adjuvant arthritis through osteoprotegerin ligand.

            Bone remodelling and bone loss are controlled by a balance between the tumour necrosis factor family molecule osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL) and its decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG). In addition, OPGL regulates lymph node organogenesis, lymphocyte development and interactions between T cells and dendritic cells in the immune system. The OPGL receptor, RANK, is expressed on chondrocytes, osteoclast precursors and mature osteoclasts. OPGL expression in T cells is induced by antigen receptor engagement, which suggests that activated T cells may influence bone metabolism through OPGL and RANK. Here we report that activated T cells can directly trigger osteoclastogenesis through OPGL. Systemic activation of T cells in vivo leads to an OPGL-mediated increase in osteoclastogenesis and bone loss. In a T-cell-dependent model of rat adjuvant arthritis characterized by severe joint inflammation, bone and cartilage destruction and crippling, blocking of OPGL through osteoprotegerin treatment at the onset of disease prevents bone and cartilage destruction but not inflammation. These results show that both systemic and local T-cell activation can lead to OPGL production and subsequent bone loss, and they provide a novel paradigm for T cells as regulators of bone physiology.
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              Systemic inflammation and comorbidity in COPD: a result of 'overspill' of inflammatory mediators from the lungs? Review of the evidence.

              Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by an inflammatory response by the lungs to inhaled substances such as cigarette smoking and air pollutants. In addition to the pulmonary features of COPD, several systemic effects have been recognised even after controlling for common aetiological factors such as smoking or steroid use. These include skeletal muscle dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and diabetes. Individuals with COPD have significantly raised levels of several circulating inflammatory markers indicating the presence of systemic inflammation. This raises the issue of cause and effect. The role of tumour necrosis factor α in COPD is thought to be central to both lung and systemic inflammation and has been implicated in skeletal muscle dysfunction, osteoporosis and type 2 diabetes. It has been hypothesised that inflammation in the lung results in 'overspill' into the circulation causing systemic inflammation. There is supportive evidence that protein movement can occur from the lung surface to the systemic circulation. Evidence from inhaled substances such as air pollutants and cigarette smoke has demonstrated a temporal link between the inflammatory process in the lung and systemic inflammation. Also, studies have shown alterations in circulating inflammatory cells in patients with COPD compared with controls which may reflect the effects of inflammatory mediators (derived from the lung) on circulating cells or the bone marrow. This paper considers the concept of 'overspill' in depth, reviews the current evidence and highlights problems in generating direct evidence to support or refute this concept.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                COPD
                copd
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                10 February 2020
                2020
                : 15
                : 301-310
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital , Beijing, 100191, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Hematology Oncology Center, Beijing Children’s Hospital, Capital Medical University , Beijing 100045, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yongchang Sun Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital , 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing100191, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86 156 1196 3697 Email suny@bjmu.edu.cn
                Article
                235384
                10.2147/COPD.S235384
                7020917
                © 2020 Xiong et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 4, References: 46, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Original Research

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