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      Value as the key concept in the health care system: how it has influenced medical practice and clinical decision-making processes

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          Abstract

          In the last 10 years, value has played a key role in the health care system. In this concept, innovations in medical practice and the increasing importance of patient centeredness have contributed to draw the attention of the medical community. Nonetheless, a large consensus on the meaning of “value” is still lacking: patients, physicians, policy makers, and other health care professionals have different ideas on which component of value may play a prominent role. Yet, shared clinical decision-making and patient empowerment have been recognized as fundamental features of the concept of value. Different paradigms of health care system embrace different meanings of value, and the absence of common and widely accepted definition does not help to identify a unique model of care in health care system. Our aim is to provide an overview of those paradigms that have considered value as a key theoretical concept and to investigate how the presence of value can influence the medical practice. This article may contribute to draw attention toward patients and propose a possible link between health care system based on “value” and new paradigms such as patient-centered system (PCS), patient empowerment, and P5 medicine, in order to create a predictive, personalized, preventive, participatory, and psycho-cognitive model to treat patients. Indeed, patient empowerment, value-based system, and P5 medicine seem to shed light on different aspects of a PCS, and this allows a better understanding of people under care.

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          Most cited references 41

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          Patients' expectations about effects of chemotherapy for advanced cancer.

          Chemotherapy for metastatic lung or colorectal cancer can prolong life by weeks or months and may provide palliation, but it is not curative. We studied 1193 patients participating in the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance (CanCORS) study (a national, prospective, observational cohort study) who were alive 4 months after diagnosis and received chemotherapy for newly diagnosed metastatic (stage IV) lung or colorectal cancer. We sought to characterize the prevalence of the expectation that chemotherapy might be curative and to identify the clinical, sociodemographic, and health-system factors associated with this expectation. Data were obtained from a patient survey by professional interviewers in addition to a comprehensive review of medical records. Overall, 69% of patients with lung cancer and 81% of those with colorectal cancer did not report understanding that chemotherapy was not at all likely to cure their cancer. In multivariable logistic regression, the risk of reporting inaccurate beliefs about chemotherapy was higher among patients with colorectal cancer, as compared with those with lung cancer (odds ratio, 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29 to 2.37); among nonwhite and Hispanic patients, as compared with non-Hispanic white patients (odds ratio for Hispanic patients, 2.82; 95% CI, 1.51 to 5.27; odds ratio for black patients, 2.93; 95% CI, 1.80 to 4.78); and among patients who rated their communication with their physician very favorably, as compared with less favorably (odds ratio for highest third vs. lowest third, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.33 to 2.72). Educational level, functional status, and the patient's role in decision making were not associated with such inaccurate beliefs about chemotherapy. Many patients receiving chemotherapy for incurable cancers may not understand that chemotherapy is unlikely to be curative, which could compromise their ability to make informed treatment decisions that are consonant with their preferences. Physicians may be able to improve patients' understanding, but this may come at the cost of patients' satisfaction with them. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and others.).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Multidiscip Healthc
                J Multidiscip Healthc
                Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
                Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-2390
                2017
                21 March 2017
                : 10
                : 101-106
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Foundations of the Life Sciences, Bioethics and Cognitive Science, European School of Molecular Medicine (SEMM)
                [2 ]Applied Research Division for Cognitive and Psychological Science, European Institute of Oncology
                [3 ]Department of Oncology and Hemato-Oncology, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Chiara Marzorati, Foundations of Life Sciences, Bioethics and Cognitive Sciences, European School of Molecular Medicine, Via Adamello 16, 20139 Milan, Italy, Email chiara.marzorati@ 123456ieo.eu
                Article
                jmdh-10-101
                10.2147/JMDH.S122383
                5367583
                © 2017 Marzorati and Pravettoni. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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