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      Nurturing children's development through healthy eating and active living: Time for policies to support effective interventions in the context of responsive emotional support and early learning

      1 , 2 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 3 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 1 , 1 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 11 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 1 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 , 27 , 28 , 29 , 30 , 11 , 31 , 32 , 25 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 , 41 , 42
      Health & Social Care in the Community

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          Breastfeeding in the 21st century: epidemiology, mechanisms, and lifelong effect.

          The importance of breastfeeding in low-income and middle-income countries is well recognised, but less consensus exists about its importance in high-income countries. In low-income and middle-income countries, only 37% of children younger than 6 months of age are exclusively breastfed. With few exceptions, breastfeeding duration is shorter in high-income countries than in those that are resource-poor. Our meta-analyses indicate protection against child infections and malocclusion, increases in intelligence, and probable reductions in overweight and diabetes. We did not find associations with allergic disorders such as asthma or with blood pressure or cholesterol, and we noted an increase in tooth decay with longer periods of breastfeeding. For nursing women, breastfeeding gave protection against breast cancer and it improved birth spacing, and it might also protect against ovarian cancer and type 2 diabetes. The scaling up of breastfeeding to a near universal level could prevent 823,000 annual deaths in children younger than 5 years and 20,000 annual deaths from breast cancer. Recent epidemiological and biological findings from during the past decade expand on the known benefits of breastfeeding for women and children, whether they are rich or poor.
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            Early childhood development coming of age: science through the life course

            Early childhood development programmes vary in coordination and quality, with inadequate and inequitable access, especially for children younger than 3 years. New estimates, based on proxy measures of stunting and poverty, indicate that 250 million children (43%) younger than 5 years in low-income and middle-income countries are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential. There is therefore an urgent need to increase multisectoral coverage of quality programming that incorporates health, nutrition, security and safety, responsive caregiving, and early learning. Equitable early childhood policies and programmes are crucial for meeting Sustainable Development Goals, and for children to develop the intellectual skills, creativity, and wellbeing required to become healthy and productive adults. In this paper, the first in a three part Series on early childhood development, we examine recent scientific progress and global commitments to early childhood development. Research, programmes, and policies have advanced substantially since 2000, with new neuroscientific evidence linking early adversity and nurturing care with brain development and function throughout the life course.
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              Why invest, and what it will take to improve breastfeeding practices?

              Despite its established benefits, breastfeeding is no longer a norm in many communities. Multifactorial determinants of breastfeeding need supportive measures at many levels, from legal and policy directives to social attitudes and values, women's work and employment conditions, and health-care services to enable women to breastfeed. When relevant interventions are delivered adequately, breastfeeding practices are responsive and can improve rapidly. The best outcomes are achieved when interventions are implemented concurrently through several channels. The marketing of breastmilk substitutes negatively affects breastfeeding: global sales in 2014 of US$44·8 billion show the industry's large, competitive claim on infant feeding. Not breastfeeding is associated with lower intelligence and economic losses of about $302 billion annually or 0·49% of world gross national income. Breastfeeding provides short-term and long-term health and economic and environmental advantages to children, women, and society. To realise these gains, political support and financial investment are needed to protect, promote, and support breastfeeding.

                Author and article information

                Health & Social Care in the Community
                Health Social Care Comm
                November 19 2022
                [1 ]Health and Social Care Unit, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine Monash University Victoria Melbourne Australia
                [2 ]Warwick Business School University of Warwick Coventry UK
                [3 ]Judith Lumley Centre, School of Nursing and Midwifery La Trobe University Victoria Bundoora Australia
                [4 ]Child Development Centre Birmingham Heartlands Hospital Birmingham UK
                [5 ]Centre for Health, Wellbeing and Behaviour Change University of Bedfordshire Luton UK
                [6 ]Centre for Health Equity The University of Melbourne Victoria Melbourne Australia
                [7 ]Ngangk Yira Research Centre for Aboriginal Health and Social Equity Murdoch University Murdoch Australia
                [8 ]The Lowitja Institute Collingwood Victoria Australia
                [9 ]University of Stirling Stirling UK
                [10 ]Institute for Health & Sport Victoria University Victoria Melbourne Australia
                [11 ]School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences Loughborough University Loughborough UK
                [12 ]School of Health Sciences University of Tasmania Tasmania Launceston Australia
                [13 ]Australian Catholic University Victoria Fitzroy Australia
                [14 ]Yoorrook Justice Commission Victoria Melbourne Australia
                [15 ]Department of Management La Trobe University Victoria Bundoora Australia
                [16 ]Department of Nutrition, Dietetics and Food, School of Clinical Sciences Monash University Victoria Clayton Australia
                [17 ]University of Michigan Michigan Ann Arbor USA
                [18 ]Department of Nutrition and Dietetics Harokopio University of Athens Athens Greece
                [19 ]Institute of Agri‐food and Life Sciences Hellenic Mediterranean University Research Centre Heraklion Greece
                [20 ]The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Hong Kong Hong Kong
                [21 ]University College London London UK
                [22 ]BC Children's Hospital Research Institute/School of Population and Public Health University of British Columbia British Columbia Vancouver Canada
                [23 ]School of Public Health University College Cork Cork Ireland
                [24 ]Non‐communicable Disease Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council & School of Public Health, Faculty of Community and Health Sciences University of the Western Cape Bellville South Africa
                [25 ]Executive Office, Warwick Medical School University of Warwick Coventry UK
                [26 ]Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Allied Health, Human Services and Sport La Trobe University Victoria Bundoora Australia
                [27 ]Tilda Goldberg Centre for Social Work and Social Care University of Bedfordshire Luton UK
                [28 ]USDA/ARS Children's Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics Baylor College of Medicine Texas Houston USA
                [29 ]Institute for Mental and Physical Health and Clinical Translation (IMPACT), Food & Mood Centre, School of Medicine Deakin University Victoria Geelong Australia
                [30 ]Carnegie School of Sport Leeds Beckett University Leeds UK
                [31 ]Department of Nursing, Suzanne Dworak‐Peck School of Social Work University of Southern California California Los Angeles USA
                [32 ]The Sax Institute Sydney Australia
                [33 ]Birmingham Community Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust Birmingham UK
                [34 ]Aston University Birmingham UK
                [35 ]Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences Deakin University Geelong Victoria Australia
                [36 ]School of Primary and Allied Health Care Monash University Frankston Victoria Australia
                [37 ]Good Shepherd Melbourne Victoria Australia
                [38 ]Griffith Criminology Institute Griffith University Brisbane Queensland Australia
                [39 ]School of Medicine and Public Health, College of Health, Medicine and Wellbeing The University of Newcastle Callaghan New South Wales Australia
                [40 ]Duke Global Health Institute Durham North Carolina USA
                [41 ]School of Medicine University of Maryland College Park Maryland USA
                [42 ]Research Triangle Institute International Research Triangle Park North Carolina USA
                © 2022





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