We present cosmological parameter constraints based on the final nine-year WMAP data, in conjunction with additional cosmological data sets. The WMAP data alone, and in combination, continue to be remarkably well fit by a six-parameter LCDM model. When WMAP data are combined with measurements of the high-l CMB anisotropy, the BAO scale, and the Hubble constant, the densities, Omegabh2, Omegach2, and Omega_L, are each determined to a precision of ~1.5%. The amplitude of the primordial spectrum is measured to within 3%, and there is now evidence for a tilt in the primordial spectrum at the 5sigma level, confirming the first detection of tilt based on the five-year WMAP data. At the end of the WMAP mission, the nine-year data decrease the allowable volume of the six-dimensional LCDM parameter space by a factor of 68,000 relative to pre-WMAP measurements. We investigate a number of data combinations and show that their LCDM parameter fits are consistent. New limits on deviations from the six-parameter model are presented, for example: the fractional contribution of tensor modes is limited to r<0.13 (95% CL); the spatial curvature parameter is limited to -0.0027 (+0.0039/-0.0038); the summed mass of neutrinos is <0.44 eV (95% CL); and the number of relativistic species is found to be 3.84+/-0.40 when the full data are analyzed. The joint constraint on Neff and the primordial helium abundance agrees with the prediction of standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis. We compare recent PLANCK measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect with our seven-year measurements, and show their mutual agreement. Our analysis of the polarization pattern around temperature extrema is updated. This confirms a fundamental prediction of the standard cosmological model and provides a striking illustration of acoustic oscillations and adiabatic initial conditions in the early universe.