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      Prognostic Value of Cardiac Computed Tomography Angiography in Patients with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease: A Meta-Analysis


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          Objectives: The diagnostic accuracy of cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is well reported. The prognostic value of CCTA has been described in several studies, but many of these were underpowered and an update of the meta-analysis is necessary to increase the power to predict rare events.The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of the ability of CCTA to predict future cardiovascular events. Methods: We searched multiple databases for longitudinal studies of CCTA with a follow-up of at least 12 months of symptomatic patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) reporting major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), death, myocardial infarction and revascularization. Summary test parameters and receiver-operating characteristic curves were calculated. Results: Eighteen studies evaluated 29,243 patients with a median follow-up of 25 months. For MACE in patients with negative findings on CCTA, there was a pooled negative likelihood ratio (LR) of 0.01 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.00-0.08], a positive LR of 1.72 (95% CI 1.54-1.91), a sensitivity of 1.00 (95% CI 0.97-1.00), a specificity of 0.42 (95% CI 0.36-0.48) and a diagnostic odds ratio of 159.07 (95% CI 22.20-1,139.80). The weighted average annualized MACE rate for positive versus negative CCTA findings was 3.49 versus 0.21%. Stratifying by no CAD, nonobstructive CAD or obstructive CAD, there were incrementally increasing adverse events. Conclusions: Adverse cardiovascular events among patients with normal findings on CCTA are rare. There are incrementally increasing future MACE with increasing CAD by CCTA.

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          Prognostic value of multidetector coronary computed tomographic angiography for prediction of all-cause mortality.

          The purpose of this study was to examine the association of all-cause death with the coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA)-defined extent and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD). The prognostic value of identifying CAD by CCTA remains undefined. We examined a single-center consecutive cohort of 1,127 patients > or =45 years old with chest symptoms. Stenosis by CCTA was scored as minimal ( or =70%) for each coronary artery. Plaque was assessed in 3 ways: 1) moderate or obstructive plaque; 2) CCTA score modified from Duke coronary artery score; and 3) simple clinical scores grading plaque extent and distribution. A 15.3 +/- 3.9-month follow-up of all-cause death was assessed using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for pretest CAD likelihood and risk factors. Deaths were verified by the Social Security Death Index. The CCTA predictors of death included proximal left anterior descending artery stenosis and number of vessels with > or =50% and > or =70% stenosis (all p or =70% or 2 stenoses > or =50% (p = 0.013) to 85% survival for > or =50% LM artery stenosis (p < 0.0001). Clinical scores measuring plaque burden and distribution predicted 5% to 6% higher absolute death rate (6.6% vs. 1.6% and 8.4% vs. 2.5%; p = 0.05 for both). In patients with chest pain, CCTA identifies increased risk for all-cause death. Importantly, a negative CCTA portends an extremely low risk for death.
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            The prognostic value of normal exercise myocardial perfusion imaging and exercise echocardiography: a meta-analysis.

            The purpose of this work was to determine the prognostic value of normal exercise myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) tests and exercise echocardiography tests, and to determine the prognostic value of these imaging modalities in women and men. Exercise MPI and exercise echocardiography provide prognostic information that is useful in the risk stratification of patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). We searched the PubMed, Cochrane, and DARE databases between January 1990 and May 2005, and reviewed bibliographies of articles obtained. We included prospective cohort studies of subjects who underwent exercise MPI or exercise echocardiography for known or suspected CAD, and provided data on primary outcomes of myocardial infarction (MI) and cardiac death with at least 3 months of follow-up. Secondary outcomes (unstable angina, revascularization procedures) were abstracted if provided. Studies performed exclusively in patients with CAD were excluded. The negative predictive value (NPV) for MI and cardiac death was 98.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 98.5 to 99.0) over 36 months of follow-up for MPI, and 98.4% (95% CI 97.9 to 98.9) over 33 months for echocardiography. The corresponding annualized event rates were 0.45% per year for MPI and 0.54% per year for echocardiography. In subgroup analyses, annualized event rates were <1% for each MPI isotope, and were similar for women and men. For secondary events, MPI and echocardiography had annualized event rates of 1.25% and 0.95%, respectively. Both exercise MPI and exercise echocardiography have high NPVs for primary and secondary cardiac events. The prognostic utility of both modalities is similar for both men and women.
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              Prevalence and severity of coronary artery disease and adverse events among symptomatic patients with coronary artery calcification scores of zero undergoing coronary computed tomography angiography: results from the CONFIRM (Coronary CT Angiography Evaluation for Clinical Outcomes: An International Multicenter) registry.

              The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in relation to prognosis in symptomatic patients without coronary artery calcification (CAC) undergoing coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). The frequency and clinical relevance of CAD in patients without CAC are unclear. We identified 10,037 symptomatic patients without CAD who underwent concomitant CCTA and CAC scoring. CAD was assessed as 0 had a sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values for stenosis ≥50% of 89%, 59%, 96%, and 29%, respectively. During a median of 2.1 years, there was no difference in mortality among patients with a CAC score of 0 irrespective of obstructive CAD. Among 8,907 patients with follow-up for the composite endpoint, 3.9% with a CAC score of 0 and ≥50% stenosis experienced an event (hazard ratio: 5.7; 95% confidence interval: 2.5 to 13.1; p < 0.001) compared with 0.8% of patients with a CAC score of 0 and no obstructive CAD. Receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that the CAC score did not add incremental prognostic information compared with CAD extent on CCTA for the composite endpoint (CCTA area under the curve = 0.825; CAC + CCTA area under the curve = 0.826; p = 0.84). In symptomatic patients with a CAC score of 0, obstructive CAD is possible and is associated with increased cardiovascular events. CAC scoring did not add incremental prognostic information to CCTA. Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                July 2014
                05 June 2014
                : 128
                : 4
                : 304-312
                Departments of aRadiology, bInterventional Radiology and cCardiology, BenQ Medical Center, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, PR China
                Author notes
                *Jichen Wang, MD, Department of Radiology, BenQ Medical Center, Nanjing Medical University, 71 Hexi Street, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210019 (PR China), E-Mail fskwjc@126.com
                360131 Cardiology 2014;128:304-312
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 2, Pages: 9
                Original Research


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