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      Clinical Application of Cytokines in Cancer Immunotherapy

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          Cytokines are key components of the immune system and play pivotal roles in anticancer immune response. Cytokines as either therapeutic agents or targets hold clinical promise for cancer precise treatment. Here, we provide an overview of the various roles of cytokines in the cancer immunity cycle, with a particular focus on the clinical researches of cytokine-based drugs in cancer therapy. We review 27 cytokines in 2630 cancer clinical trials registered with ClinicalTrials.gov that had completed recruitment up to January 2021 while summarizing important cases for each cytokine. We also discuss recent progress in methods for improving the delivery efficiency, stability, biocompatibility, and availability of cytokines in therapeutic applications.

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          Most cited references 148

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          Global Cancer Statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries

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            Gold nanoparticles for biology and medicine.

            Gold colloids have fascinated scientists for over a century and are now heavily utilized in chemistry, biology, engineering, and medicine. Today these materials can be synthesized reproducibly, modified with seemingly limitless chemical functional groups, and, in certain cases, characterized with atomic-level precision. This Review highlights recent advances in the synthesis, bioconjugation, and cellular uses of gold nanoconjugates. There are now many examples of highly sensitive and selective assays based upon gold nanoconjugates. In recent years, focus has turned to therapeutic possibilities for such materials. Structures which behave as gene-regulating agents, drug carriers, imaging agents, and photoresponsive therapeutics have been developed and studied in the context of cells and many debilitating diseases. These structures are not simply chosen as alternatives to molecule-based systems, but rather for their new physical and chemical properties, which confer substantive advantages in cellular and medical applications.
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              Oncology meets immunology: the cancer-immunity cycle.

              The genetic and cellular alterations that define cancer provide the immune system with the means to generate T cell responses that recognize and eradicate cancer cells. However, elimination of cancer by T cells is only one step in the Cancer-Immunity Cycle, which manages the delicate balance between the recognition of nonself and the prevention of autoimmunity. Identification of cancer cell T cell inhibitory signals, including PD-L1, has prompted the development of a new class of cancer immunotherapy that specifically hinders immune effector inhibition, reinvigorating and potentially expanding preexisting anticancer immune responses. The presence of suppressive factors in the tumor microenvironment may explain the limited activity observed with previous immune-based therapies and why these therapies may be more effective in combination with agents that target other steps of the cycle. Emerging clinical data suggest that cancer immunotherapy is likely to become a key part of the clinical management of cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                27 May 2021
                : 15
                : 2269-2287
                [1 ]Guanghua School of Stomatology, Hospital of Stomatology, Sun Yat-Sen University , Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University , Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology , Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jianbo Sun Guanghua School of Stomatology, Hospital of Stomatology, Sun Yat-Sen University , No. 74, Zhongshan Er Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510080, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86-20-87330589 Email sunjb3@mail.sysu.edu.cn
                © 2021 Qiu et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 3, References: 149, Pages: 19


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