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      Wake structure and wing kinematics: the flight of the lesser dog-faced fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis.

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          Abstract

          We investigated the detailed kinematics and wake structure of lesser dog-faced fruit bats (Cynopterus brachyotis) flying in a wind tunnel. High speed recordings of the kinematics were conducted to obtain three-dimensional reconstructions of wing movements. Simultaneously, the flow structure in the spanwise plane perpendicular to the flow stream was visualized using time-resolved particle image velocimetry. The flight of four individuals was investigated to reveal patterns in kinematics and wake structure typical for lower and higher speeds. The wake structure identified as typical for both speed categories was a closed-loop ring vortex consisting of the tip vortex and the limited appearance of a counter-rotating vortex near the body, as well as a small distally located vortex system at the end of the upstroke that generated negative lift. We also investigated the degree of consistency within trials and looked at individual variation in flight parameters, and found distinct differences between individuals as well as within individuals.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          J Exp Biol
          The Journal of experimental biology
          The Company of Biologists
          1477-9145
          0022-0949
          Oct 15 2010
          : 213
          : Pt 20
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Division of Engineering, Brown University, Providence RI 02912, USA. thubel@rvc.ac.uk
          Article
          213/20/3427
          10.1242/jeb.043257
          20889823
          8883024a-9d62-4371-bb71-63071af0360b
          History

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