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      A complex structure of arrestin-2 bound to a G protein-coupled receptor

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          Abstract

          <p class="first" id="Par1">Arrestins comprise a family of signal regulators of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which include arrestins 1 to 4. While arrestins 1 and 4 are visual arrestins dedicated to rhodopsin, arrestins 2 and 3 (Arr2 and Arr3) are β-arrestins known to regulate many nonvisual GPCRs. The dynamic and promiscuous coupling of Arr2 to nonvisual GPCRs has posed technical challenges to tackle the basis of arrestin binding to GPCRs. Here we report the structure of Arr2 in complex with neurotensin receptor 1 (NTSR1), which reveals an overall assembly that is strikingly different from the visual arrestin–rhodopsin complex by a 90° rotation of Arr2 relative to the receptor. In this new configuration, intracellular loop 3 (ICL3) and transmembrane helix 6 (TM6) of the receptor are oriented toward the N-terminal domain of the arrestin, making it possible for GPCRs that lack the C-terminal tail to couple Arr2 through their ICL3. Molecular dynamics simulation and crosslinking data further support the assembly of the Arr2‒NTSR1 complex. Sequence analysis and homology modeling suggest that the Arr2‒NTSR1 complex structure may provide an alternative template for modeling arrestin–GPCR interactions. </p>

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          Most cited references 22

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          OPM: orientations of proteins in membranes database.

          The Orientations of Proteins in Membranes (OPM) database provides a collection of transmembrane, monotopic and peripheral proteins from the Protein Data Bank whose spatial arrangements in the lipid bilayer have been calculated theoretically and compared with experimental data. The database allows analysis, sorting and searching of membrane proteins based on their structural classification, species, destination membrane, numbers of transmembrane segments and subunits, numbers of secondary structures and the calculated hydrophobic thickness or tilt angle with respect to the bilayer normal. All coordinate files with the calculated membrane boundaries are available for downloading. http://opm.phar.umich.edu.
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            The genetic design of signaling cascades to record receptor activation.

            We have developed an experimental strategy to monitor protein interactions in a cell with a high degree of selectivity and sensitivity. A transcription factor is tethered to a membrane-bound receptor with a linker that contains a cleavage site for a specific protease. Activation of the receptor recruits a signaling protein fused to the protease that then cleaves and releases the transcription factor to activate reporter genes in the nucleus. This strategy converts a transient interaction into a stable and amplifiable reporter gene signal to record the activation of a receptor without interference from endogenous signaling pathways. We have developed this assay for three classes of receptors: G protein-coupled receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, and steroid hormone receptors. Finally, we use the assay to identify a ligand for the orphan receptor GPR1, suggesting a role for this receptor in the regulation of inflammation.
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              Microscale fluorescent thermal stability assay for membrane proteins.

              Systematic efforts to understand membrane protein stability under a variety of different solution conditions are not widely available for membrane proteins, mainly due to technical problems stemming from the presence of detergents necessary to keep the proteins in the solubilized state and the background that such detergents usually generate during biophysical characterization. In this report, we introduce an efficient microscale fluorescent stability screen using the thiol-specific fluorochrome N-[4-(7-diethylamino-4-methyl-3-coumarinyl)phenyl]maleimide (CPM) for stability profiling of membrane proteins under different solution and ligand conditions. The screen uses the chemical reactivity of the native cysteines embedded in the protein interior as a sensor for the overall integrity of the folded state. The thermal information gained by thorough investigation of the protein stability landscape can be effectively used to guide purification and biophysical characterization efforts including crystallization. To evaluate the method, three different protein families were analyzed, including the Apelin G protein-coupled receptor (APJ).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cell Research
                Cell Res
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1001-0602
                1748-7838
                November 27 2019
                Article
                10.1038/s41422-019-0256-2
                6951264
                31776446
                8887bfa8-4488-4b38-9a18-8dc76a9f3fa2
                © 2019

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