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A beam branching method for timing and spectral characterization of hard X-ray free-electron lasers

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      Abstract

      We report a method for achieving advanced photon diagnostics of x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) under a quasi-noninvasive condition by using a beam-splitting scheme. Here, we used a transmission grating to generate multiple branches of x-ray beams. One of the two primary diffracted branches (+1st-order) is utilized for spectral measurement in a dispersive scheme, while the other (−1st-order) is dedicated for arrival timing diagnostics between the XFEL and the optical laser pulses. The transmitted x-ray beam (0th-order) is guided to an experimental station. To confirm the validity of this timing-monitoring scheme, we measured the correlation between the arrival timings of the −1st and 0th branches. The observed error was as small as 7.0 fs in root-mean-square. Our result showed the applicability of the beam branching scheme to advanced photon diagnostics, which will further enhance experimental capabilities of XFEL.

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      Most cited references 46

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      First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser

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        Femtosecond X-ray protein nanocrystallography.

        X-ray crystallography provides the vast majority of macromolecular structures, but the success of the method relies on growing crystals of sufficient size. In conventional measurements, the necessary increase in X-ray dose to record data from crystals that are too small leads to extensive damage before a diffraction signal can be recorded. It is particularly challenging to obtain large, well-diffracting crystals of membrane proteins, for which fewer than 300 unique structures have been determined despite their importance in all living cells. Here we present a method for structure determination where single-crystal X-ray diffraction 'snapshots' are collected from a fully hydrated stream of nanocrystals using femtosecond pulses from a hard-X-ray free-electron laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source. We prove this concept with nanocrystals of photosystem I, one of the largest membrane protein complexes. More than 3,000,000 diffraction patterns were collected in this study, and a three-dimensional data set was assembled from individual photosystem I nanocrystals (∼200 nm to 2 μm in size). We mitigate the problem of radiation damage in crystallography by using pulses briefer than the timescale of most damage processes. This offers a new approach to structure determination of macromolecules that do not yield crystals of sufficient size for studies using conventional radiation sources or are particularly sensitive to radiation damage.
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          A compact X-ray free-electron laser emitting in the sub-ångström region

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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute , 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198, Japan
            [2 ]RIKEN SPring-8 Center , 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148, Japan
            [3 ]Paul Scherrer Institut , CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland
            Author notes
            [b)]

            Present addresses: Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 8-1-7 Umemidai, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215, Japan; Finnlitho Ltd, FI-80140 Joensuu, Finland; Institute of Photonics, University of Eastern Finland, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland; and Department of Chemistry, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.

            Journal
            Struct Dyn
            Struct Dyn
            SDTYAE
            Structural Dynamics
            American Crystallographic Association
            2329-7778
            29 January 2016
            May 2016
            29 January 2016
            : 3
            : 3
            26958586
            4733081
            10.1063/1.4939655
            1.4939655 001601SDY SD-RE15-00115R
            © 2016 Author(s).

            2329-7778/2016/3(3)/034301/14

            All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

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            Pages: 14
            Categories
            ARTICLES
            Experimental Methodologies
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