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      Self-promotion as a risk factor for women: The costs and benefits of counterstereotypical impression management.

      Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

      American Psychological Association (APA)

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          Abstract

          Three experiments tested and extended recent theory regarding motivational influences on impression formation (S. T. Fiske & S. L. Neuberg, 1990; J. L. Hilton & J. M. Darley, 1991) in the context of an impression management dilemma that women face: Self-promotion may be instrumental for managing a competent impression, yet women who self-promote may suffer social reprisals for violating gender prescriptions to be modest. Experiment 1 investigated the influence of perceivers' goals on processes that inhibit stereotypical thinking, and reactions to counterstereotypical behavior. Experiments 2-3 extended these findings by including male targets. For female targets, self-promotion led to higher competence ratings but incurred social attraction and hireability costs unless perceivers were outcome-dependent males. For male targets, self-effacement decreased competence and hireability ratings, though its effects on social attraction were inconsistent.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
          Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
          American Psychological Association (APA)
          1939-1315
          0022-3514
          1998
          1998
          : 74
          : 3
          : 629-645
          Article
          10.1037/0022-3514.74.3.629
          9523410
          88969664-9323-4c31-aae3-86091b226674
          © 1998

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