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      Lack of SARS Transmission among Public Hospital Workers, Vietnam

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          Abstract

          The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in Vietnam was amplified by nosocomial spread within hospital A, but no transmission was reported in hospital B, the second of two designated SARS hospitals. Our study documents lack of SARS-associated coronavirus transmission to hospital B workers, despite variable infection control measures and the use of personal protective equipment.

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          Most cited references 4

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          Clinical progression and viral load in a community outbreak of coronavirus-associated SARS pneumonia: a prospective study.

          We investigated the temporal progression of the clinical, radiological, and virological changes in a community outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). We followed up 75 patients for 3 weeks managed with a standard treatment protocol of ribavirin and corticosteroids, and assessed the pattern of clinical disease, viral load, risk factors for poor clinical outcome, and the usefulness of virological diagnostic methods. Fever and pneumonia initially improved but 64 (85%) patients developed recurrent fever after a mean of 8.9 (SD 3.1) days, 55 (73%) had watery diarrhoea after 7.5 (2.3) days, 60 (80%) had radiological worsening after 7.4 (2.2) days, and respiratory symptoms worsened in 34 (45%) after 8.6 (3.0) days. In 34 (45%) patients, improvement of initial pulmonary lesions was associated with appearance of new radiological lesions at other sites. Nine (12%) patients developed spontaneous pneumomediastinum and 15 (20%) developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in week 3. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase (RT) PCR of nasopharyngeal aspirates in 14 patients (four with ARDS) showed peak viral load at day 10, and at day 15 a load lower than at admission. Age and chronic hepatitis B virus infection treated with lamivudine were independent significant risk factors for progression to ARDS (p=0.001). SARS-associated coronavirus in faeces was seen on RT-PCR in 65 (97%) of 67 patients at day 14. The mean time to seroconversion was 20 days. The consistent clinical progression, shifting radiological infiltrates, and an inverted V viral-load profile suggest that worsening in week 2 is unrelated to uncontrolled viral replication but may be related to immunopathological damage.
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            Severe acute respiratory syndrome--Singapore, 2003.

             Mark Chen (2003)
            The Singapore Ministry of Health (MOH), with assistance from the World Health Organization (WHO), has been investigating an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). This is a novel condition caused by the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and is characterized by both an atypical pneumonia and efficient nosocomial transmission. This report summarizes epidemiologic features of this outbreak in Singapore, including the influence of super spreaders and the national prevention and control strategy.
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              Clinical Description of a Completed Outbreak of SARS in Vietnam, February–May, 2003

              We investigated the clinical manifestations and course of all probable severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) patients in the Vietnam outbreak. Probable SARS cases were defined by using the revised World Health Organization criteria. We systematically reviewed medical records and undertook descriptive statistical analyses. All 62 patients were hospitalized. On admission, the most prominent symptoms were malaise (82.3%) and fever (79.0%). Cough, chest pain, and shortness of breath were present in approximately one quarter of the patients; 79.0% had lymphopenia; 40.3% had thrombocytopenia; 19.4% had leukopenia; and 75.8% showed changes on chest radiograph. Fever developed on the first day of illness onset, and both respiratory symptoms and radiographic changes occurred on day 4. On average, maximal radiographic changes were observed on day 10, and fevers subsided by day 13. Symptoms on admission were nonspecific, although fever, malaise, and lymphopenia were common. The complications of SARS included invasive intubation and ventilation (11.3%) and death (9.7%).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Emerg Infect Dis
                Emerging Infect. Dis
                EID
                Emerging Infectious Diseases
                Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
                1080-6040
                1080-6059
                February 2004
                : 10
                : 2
                : 265-268
                Affiliations
                [* ]Institute for Clinical Research in Tropical Medicine, Hanoi, Vietnam
                []Bach Mai Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam
                []Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
                [§ ]National Institute for Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam
                []Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response, World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland
                [# ]Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam
                [** ]Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response, WHO, Hanoi, Vietnam
                [†† ]Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia
                [1 ]Primary coauthor.
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Sharon Bloom, National Immunization Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, NE, Mailstop E61, Atlanta, GA 30333 USA; email: sbloom@ 123456cdc.gov
                Article
                03-0707
                10.3201/eid1002.030707
                3322918
                15030695
                Categories
                Research

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