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      Association of serum levels of laminin, type IV collagen, procollagen III N-terminal peptide, and hyaluronic acid with the progression of interstitial lung disease

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          Abstract

          Noninvasive and convenient tests to assess pulmonary fibrosis and disease progression in interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are currently unavailable. The extracellular matrix molecules, laminin (LN), type IV collagen (IVC), procollagen III N-terminal peptide (PIIINP), and hyaluronic acid (HA) are involved in ILD development and progression. This study aims to investigate the association of disease progression and serum levels of LN, IVC, PIIINP, and HA in patients with ILD. This retrospective study included 323 patients (162 cases of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis [IPF] and 161 cases of connective tissue diseases ILD [CTD-ILD]) treated in Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital between January 2013 and January 2015 and 160 healthy controls. Serum LN, IVC, PIIINP, and HA were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Data of the percentage of forced vital capacity in the prediction value (FVC%pred), the percentage of diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide in the prediction value (DLCO%pred), high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) score, and patient mortality were collected. Serum LN, IVC, PIIINP, and HA were significantly increased in the patients with IPF or CTD-ILD compared with the healthy controls (all P < .05) and were further elevated in the acute exacerbation cases (all P < .05). Serum LN, IVC, PIIINP, and HA positively correlated with HRCT score and negatively correlated with FVC%pred and DLCO%pred significantly in the patients (all P < .05). The survived patients had significantly lower serum LN, IVC, PIIINP, and HA than the dead patients (all P < .05). Serum levels of LN, IVC, PIIINP, and HA may reflect ILD progression and may be indicators for the severity of ILDs.

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          The American Rheumatism Association 1987 revised criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis.

          The revised criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were formulated from a computerized analysis of 262 contemporary, consecutively studied patients with RA and 262 control subjects with rheumatic diseases other than RA (non-RA). The new criteria are as follows: 1) morning stiffness in and around joints lasting at least 1 hour before maximal improvement; 2) soft tissue swelling (arthritis) of 3 or more joint areas observed by a physician; 3) swelling (arthritis) of the proximal interphalangeal, metacarpophalangeal, or wrist joints; 4) symmetric swelling (arthritis); 5) rheumatoid nodules; 6) the presence of rheumatoid factor; and 7) radiographic erosions and/or periarticular osteopenia in hand and/or wrist joints. Criteria 1 through 4 must have been present for at least 6 weeks. Rheumatoid arthritis is defined by the presence of 4 or more criteria, and no further qualifications (classic, definite, or probable) or list of exclusions are required. In addition, a "classification tree" schema is presented which performs equally as well as the traditional (4 of 7) format. The new criteria demonstrated 91-94% sensitivity and 89% specificity for RA when compared with non-RA rheumatic disease control subjects.
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            Acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: incidence, risk factors and outcome.

            Although acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has become well recognised, the reported incidence and outcomes are highly variable, and risk factors are unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence, risk factors and impact of acute exacerbations, and other known causes of rapid deterioration. This was a retrospective review of 461 patients with IPF (269 cases were biopsy-proven). The median follow-up period was 22.9 months. Rapid deterioration requiring hospitalisation occurred in 163 (35.4%) patients, with multiple episodes in 42 patients. Acute exacerbation was the most frequent cause (55.2%), followed by infection. The 1- and 3-yr incidences of acute exacerbation were 14.2 and 20.7%, respectively. Never having smoked and low forced vital capacity (FVC) were significant risk factors. The in-hospital mortality rate was 50.0%, and the 1- and 5-yr survival rates from the initial diagnosis were 56.2 and 18.4%, respectively. Acute exacerbation was a significant predictor of poor survival after the initial diagnosis, along with increased age, low FVC and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide, and steroid use with or without cytotoxic therapy. 1- and 3-yr incidences of acute exacerbation were 14.2 and 20.7%, respectively. Never having smoked and low FVC were risk factors. Acute exacerbation had a serious impact on the overall survival of the patients with IPF.
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              Acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: frequency and clinical features.

              Although acute exacerbations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are well recognised, there are no studies documenting their prevalence or identifying pre-existing risk factors. This study analysed the clinical, radiological and pathological data of 11 patients who satisfied the criteria for acute exacerbation among 147 patients with biopsy-proven idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. There were five additional patients who had similar demographics, radiology and surgical lung biopsy pathology, but had clinically less severe disease, and so were not included. The 2-yr frequency of acute exacerbation was 9.6% after the diagnosis. Most exacerbations were idiopathic, although two cases presented after surgical lung biopsy and one after bronchoalveolar lavage. No significant risk factor was found by univariate proportional hazard analysis. Imaging revealed diffuse bilateral ground-glass opacification superimposed on subpleural reticular and honeycombing densities. The biopsies of four patients taken during acute exacerbation exhibited diffuse alveolar damage superimposed upon usual interstitial pneumonia. The findings of this study demonstrate that acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is rather common and this exacerbation is likely to have a spectrum of severity.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Medicine (Baltimore)
                Medicine (Baltimore)
                MEDI
                Medicine
                Wolters Kluwer Health
                0025-7974
                1536-5964
                May 2017
                05 May 2017
                : 96
                : 18
                : e6617
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai
                [b ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nantong Sixth People's Hospital, Nantong, China.
                Author notes
                []Correspondence: Huiping Li, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, 507 Zheng Min Road, Shanghai 200433, China (e-mail: liw2013@ 123456126.com)
                Article
                MD-D-16-07623 06617
                10.1097/MD.0000000000006617
                5419904
                28471958
                88a72473-cb5e-44b0-b181-15641df74131
                Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0

                History
                : 20 December 2016
                : 22 February 2017
                : 24 March 2017
                Categories
                6700
                Research Article
                Observational Study
                Custom metadata
                TRUE

                hyaluronic acid,interstitial lung diseases,laminin,procollagen iii n-terminal peptide,type iv collagen

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