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      Preliminary result of definitive radiotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer who have underlying idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: comparison between X-ray and proton therapy

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          Abstract

          Background

          Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is associated with fatal complications after radiotherapy (RT) for lung cancer patients; however, the role of proton therapy to reduce the incidence of life-threatening complications is unclear. Herein, we present the preliminary results of early-stage lung cancer patients having IPF and treated with RT, with a focus on the comparison between X-ray and proton therapy.

          Methods

          From January 2010 to October 2017, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 264 patients with stage I-II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with definitive RT alone. Ultimately, 30 patients (11.4%) who had underlying IPF were analyzed. Among these, X-ray and proton RT were delivered to 22 and 8 patients, respectively. Treatment-related complications and survival outcomes were compared between X-ray and proton therapy.

          Results

          The median follow-up duration was 11 months (range, 2 to 51 months). All living patients were followed-up at least 9 months. Treatment-related death occurred in four patients (18.2%) treated with X-ray but none with proton therapy. Most patients died within one month after the onset of pulmonary symptoms in spite of aggressive treatment. In addition, the 1-year overall survival (OS) rate in patients treated with X-ray and proton was 46.4 and 66.7%, respectively, and patients treated with proton therapy showed a tendency of better survival compared to X-ray ( p = 0.081). Especially, in GAP stage II and III subgroups, patients treated with proton therapy showed significantly increased survival outcomes compared to X-ray (1-year OS rate; 50.0% versus 26.4%, p = 0.036) in univariate analysis.

          Conclusions

          RT is associated with serious treatment-related complications in patients with IPF. Proton therapy may be helpful to reduce these acute and fatal complications.

          Trial registration

          retrospectively registered.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Factors predicting severe radiation pneumonitis in patients receiving definitive chemoradiation for lung cancer.

          To identify factors that may predict for severe radiation pneumonitis or pneumonopathy (RP), we reviewed a set of simple, commonly available characteristics. Medical records of 148 lung cancer patients with good performance status (ECOG 0-1) treated definitively with chemoradiation from 6/92-6/98 at the University of Pennsylvania were reviewed. Actuarial survival and the crude rate of severe radiation pneumonitis were determined as a function of several variables. Potential predictive factors examined included age, gender, histology, stage, pulmonary function, performance status (0 vs. 1), weight loss, tumor location, radiation dose, initial radiation field size, chemotherapy regimen, and timing of chemotherapy. Univariate analysis (log-rank test) was performed for each variable. Multivariate analysis was performed using linear regression. Median survival for the entire cohort was 14.7 months. Four patients were inevaluable for pneumonitis due to early death from progressive disease. Of the remaining 144 evaluable patients, 12 (8.3%) experienced severe RP. The most significant factor predicting for severe RP was performance status (p 2.0 liters. The median radiation dose was 59.2 Gy and median initial radiation field size was 228 cm(2). Neither radiotherapy factor predicted for RP. Other factors studied, including chemotherapy drugs, and schedule, also were not significant predictors of severe RP. Pretreatment performance status, gender, and FEV(1) are significant predictors of severe radiation pneumonopathy, at least when using conventional radiation fields and doses. Complex radiation dose-volume algorithms that attempt to predict lung complication probabilities should probably incorporate these simply obtained clinical parameters.
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            Stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung tumors in patients with subclinical interstitial lung disease: the potential risk of extensive radiation pneumonitis.

            To evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of thoracic stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in patients with subclinical interstitial lung disease (ILD). One hundred patients with 124 lung tumors were treated with SBRT at our institution according to our own protocols; patients with subclinical (untreated and oxygen-free) ILD were treated with SBRT, while those with clinical ILD (post- or under treatment) were not. The administration of 48 Gy in four fractions was used in 103 (83%) of the 124 tumors. The presence of subclinical ILD in the pre-SBRT CT findings was reviewed by two chest radiologists. The relationships between radiation pneumonitis (RP) and clinical factors were investigated. Subclinical ILD was recognized in 16 (16%) of 100 patients. Grade 2-5 RP was recognized in 13 (13%) of 100 patients. Grade 2-5 RP was observed in three (19%) of 16 patients with subclinical ILD. Subclinical ILD was not found to be a significant factor influencing Grade 2-5 RP; however, extensive RP beyond the irradiated field, including the contralateral lung, was recognized in only three patients with subclinical ILD, and the rate of extensive RP was significantly high in the patients with subclinical ILD. Grade 4 or 5 extensive RP was recognized in only two patients with subclinical ILD. Dosimetric factors of the lungs (V5, V10, V15, V20, V25, MLD) were significantly associated with Grade 2-5 RP. The three-year overall survival and local control rates of all patients were 53% and 86%, respectively. No significant differences were seen in either overall survival or local control rates between the patients with ILD and those without ILD. Subclinical ILD was not found to be a significant factor for Grade 2-5 RP or clinical outcomes in the current study; however, uncommon extensive RP can occur in patients with subclinical ILD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              A prospective study on radiation pneumonitis following conformal radiation therapy in non-small-cell lung cancer: clinical and dosimetric factors analysis.

              Clinical and dosimetric prognostic factors for radiation pneumonitis (RP) have been reported after three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Ninety-six patients who received 3D-CRT for stage IA to IIIB NSCLC were evaluated prospectively. Surgery was performed before radiation in 51% of the patients (n = 49). RP was diagnosed six-eight weeks after 3D-CRT using the Lent-Soma classification. Factors evaluated included treatment factors such as total mean lung dose (MLD), and dose-volume histogram (DVH) thresholds for several radiation dose steps. These thresholds were originally determined from the median of the irradiated lung volume at each step. Six patients could not be evaluated for RP six weeks after 3D-CRT. Of the 90 remaining patients, 40 (44%) had RP (i.e. grade > or =1) at 6 weeks, including 7 patients (7.8%) with severe RP (grade > or =2). Regarding the whole toxicity (grade > or =1), age (> or =60 years), MLD, V20 and V30 were significantly related to RP. DVH thresholds determined for radiation doses from 20 to 40 Gy were also predictive of RP. Considering only severe RP (grade > or =2), only MLD, V20 and V30 remained associated with increased acute pulmonary toxicity. In this study, dosimetric factors (MLD, V20, V30) and age (> or =60 years) were predictive of RP regarding the whole pulmonary toxicity (grade > or =1). In addition, thresholds from 20 to 40 Gy, based on a stratification according to the median of the percentage of irradiated lung volume, were also predictive factors. They may, therefore, help discriminate patients at high and low risk for RP. However, only MLD, V20 and V30 remained associated with severe RP (grade > or =2), probably due to the small number of severe events in our series.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                hk614.kim@samsung.com
                +82-2-3410-2438 , hr.pyo@samsung.com
                jm2.noh@samsung.com
                wj0616.lee@samsung.com
                bs1002.park@samsung.com
                kerrybe.park@samsung.com
                hongseok.yoo@samsung.com
                Journal
                Radiat Oncol
                Radiat Oncol
                Radiation Oncology (London, England)
                BioMed Central (London )
                1748-717X
                28 January 2019
                28 January 2019
                2019
                : 14
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2181 989X, GRID grid.264381.a, Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, , Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, ; 81 Irwon-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, 06351 Republic of Korea
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2181 989X, GRID grid.264381.a, Internal Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, , Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, ; Seoul, Republic of Korea
                Article
                1221
                10.1186/s13014-019-1221-4
                6348683
                © The Author(s). 2019

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: Samsung Medical Center
                Award ID: #OTC1180381
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Research
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                © The Author(s) 2019

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