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      Association between Breast Milk Mineral Content and Maternal Adherence to Healthy Dietary Patterns in Spain: A Transversal Study


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          The composition of breast milk is influenced by many factors, some of which dependent on the mother and others on the child. Changes in lactation and other factors depending on the mother’s physiology and anthropometric characteristics, as well as her nutritional status and diet, are of key importance. Breast milk minerals have been extensively studied with highly uneven results. In this work, a comparison will made with data across the world. To understand the factors that might explain the disparity, several minerals (Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Se and I) have been analyzed using ICP-MS in a set of human milk samples ( n = 75). The samples had an identical geographical origin (Galicia, in northwestern Spain) but different lactation circumstances, including maternal anthropometric data, lactating time, newborn sex and maternal adherence to healthy dietary patterns (Mediterranean Diet, MD, or Atlantic Diet, AD). The required concentrations of essential elements reported in the literature are similar to those found in these Spanish women. A univariate approach revealed that factors such as lactating time, body mass index (BMI) and newborn sex have a significant influence in breastmilk mineral content. According to multivariate linear regression analysis, minerals in milk are particularly associated with lactating time, but also with newborn sex, maternal BMI, age and diet pattern in some cases. More precisely, these results suggest that the iron and selenium concentrations in the milk of Galician donors may be positively influenced by maternal adherence to AD and MD, respectively.

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          Scientific Opinion on nutrient requirements and dietary intakes of infants and young children in the European Union

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            Macronutrient, mineral and trace element composition of breast milk from Japanese women.

            The aim of the study was to determine the concentrations of macronutrients and the mineral and trace element composition in maternal milk of Japanese women. We collected human milk samples from mothers living throughout Japan from December 1998 to September 1999, and defined as group A the 1197 samples among them that met the following conditions: breast milk of mothers who were under 40 years old, not in the habit of smoking and/or using vitamin supplements, and whose babies showed no symptoms of atopy and whose birth weights were 2.5 kg or more. We then analyzed their contents individually. We also analyzed the amino acid and free amino acid composition of the breast milk of pooled samples from various lactation stages. Large differences were found to exist among the contents of individual human milk samples. The mean contents of each component were as follows: energy, 66.3+/-13.3 kcal/100 mL; solid matter, 12.46+/-1.56 g/100 mL; ash, 0.19+/-0.06 g/100 mL; total nitrogen, 0.19+/-0.04 g/100 mL; lipids, 3.46+/-1.49 g/100 mL; carbohydrates, 7.58+/-0.77 g/100 mL; lactose, 6.44+/-0.49 g/100 mL; pH, 6.5+/-0.3; osmotic pressure, 299+/-14 mOsm/kg.H2O; chloride, 35.9+/-16.2 mg/100 mL; sodium, 13.5+/-8.7 mg/100 mL; magnesium, 2.7+/-0.9 mg/100 mL; phosphorus, 15.0+/-3.8 mg/100 mL; potassium, 47.0+/-12.1 mg/100 mL; calcium, 25.0+/-7.1 mg/100 mL; chromium, 5.9+/-4.7 microg/100 mL; manganese, 1.1+/-2.3 microg/100mL; iron, 119+/-251 microg/100 mL; copper, 35+/-21 microg/100 mL; zinc, 145+/-135 microg/100 mL; and selenium, 1.7+/-0.6 microg/100 mL. The content of each component varied greatly as the duration of lactation increased. In conclusion, it appears to be necessary to evaluate individual differences of human milk in order to perform valid research regarding infant formula.
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              Toxic and essential trace elements in human milk from Greek lactating women: association with dietary habits and other factors.

              The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of some essential and toxic metals in the colostrum and transitory human milk in conjunction with various factors that may influence their concentrations i.e. diet, supplementation, place of residence, smoking, as well as socioeconomic and somatometric characteristics. Zinc, iron, copper, manganese, cadmium and lead were measured by AAS in 180 colostrum samples from healthy lactating women collected on third day postpartum. A second milk sample was collected in 95 (53%) subjects 14 days later. Dietary habits were assessed by a 7-day food frequency questionnaire and various characteristics and socio-economic factors were also recorded. The mean (+/-standard deviation) values of colostrum samples were: Zn 4905 +/- 1725 microg l(-1), Fe 544 +/- 348 microg l(-1), Mn 4.79 +/- 3.23 microg l(-1), Cu 381 +/- 132 microg l(-1), Cd 0.190 +/- 0.150 microg l(-1), Pb 0.48 +/- 0.60 microg l(-1). All metals with the exception of copper were found in lower concentrations in transitory samples. Cadmium and lead weekly intakes were found to be below the Maximum Tolerable Weekly Intakes as they have been established for infants by WHO or NRC. Our results revealed: higher Pb concentration in the samples from urban areas; effect of smoking on Cu level; dietary habits seem to play a role in metal levels in human milk as the logistic regression models revealed.

                Author and article information

                20 May 2020
                May 2020
                : 9
                : 5
                : 659
                [1 ]Pharmacy Faculty, Campus Monteprincipe, San Pablo-CEU University, 28668 Madrid, Spain; c.sanchez127@ 123456usp.ceu.es
                [2 ]Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Santiago de Compostela University, 27002 Lugo, Spain; rocio.barreiro@ 123456usc.es (R.B.); Olga.Lopez.Racamonde@ 123456sergas.es (O.L.-R.); alberto.cepeda@ 123456usc.es (A.C.); patricia.regal@ 123456usc.es (P.R.)
                [3 ]Midwifery Service at San Roque Health Center, SERGAS (Servizo Galego de Saúde), 27002 Lugo, Spain
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: cristina.fente@ 123456usc.es ; Tel.: +34-600-942349
                Author information
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 18 April 2020
                : 17 May 2020

                breast milk,icp-ms,minerals,lactating time,mediterranean diet,atlantic diet


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