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      Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy–Based Intervention on Improving Glycaemic, Psychological, and Physiological Outcomes in Adult Patients With Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials


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          Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have a high risk of secondary physiological and psychological complications. Some interventions based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) have been used to control glucose levels and improve negative emotions of patients with DM. This study was undertaken to provide an overview of the effectiveness of CBT-based interventions for improving glycaemic control, psychological, and physiological outcomes in adult patients with DM.


          Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in English and Chinese during 2007 and April 2019 were searched through various electronic databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Embase, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, and the Chinese databases (WanFang data and China National Knowledge Infrastructure). The primary outcome variables included glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), depression, and anxiety symptoms. The secondary outcomes were weight and cholesterol. Effect sizes were pooled by random-effects modelling using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software. Physiotherapy Evidence Database tool was used to assess the quality of all included studies.


          Twenty-three RCTs comprising 2,619 patients with DM (type 1 and type 2) were included in at least one meta-analysis. The results of the main analysis showed that CBT-based interventions had a better effect on reduced HbA1c (−0.275%, 95% CI: −0.443 to −0.107; p < 0.01) with Hedge’s g of 0.466 (95% CI: 0.710 – 0.189), reduced depression symptoms with average reduction of −2.788 (95% CI: −4.450 to −1.207; p < 0.01) and Hedge’s g of 0.966 (95% CI: 1.507 – 0.426). Twenty-three RCTs comprising 2,619 patients with DM (type 1 and type 2) were included in this meta-analysis. Several mediators of the effect were found through subgroup analysis for HbA1c and depression symptoms. The interventions emphasising completion homework assignments, stress management, and that used an interpersonal strategy delivered via a group had a better effect on both HbA1c and depression symptoms. In addition, behavioral strategies had a better effect on glycaemic control, and cognitive strategies had a better effect on depression symptoms. There was no difference in the change of FPG, anxiety symptoms, weight, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) between CBT-based interventions and the control conditions.


          The findings indicate that CBT-based interventions are effective for improving glycaemic control and depression symptoms in adult patients with type 1 DM (T1DM) or type 2 DM (T2DM) with moderate to large effect size. The results of the subgroup analysis suggest that it is necessary to adopt different types and technical components of CBT according to the population and purpose of the treatment in clinical practice. Due to the high heterogeneity of included studies and other limitations, further study including large number of studies is needed to confirm these results.

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          Improving diabetes self-management through acceptance, mindfulness, and values: a randomized controlled trial.

          Patients in a low-income community health center with Type 2 diabetes (N = 81) taking a one-day education workshop as part of their diabetes medical management were randomly assigned either to education alone or to a combination of education and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). Both groups were taught how to manage their diabetes, but those in the ACT condition also learned to apply acceptance and mindfulness skills to difficult diabetes-related thoughts and feelings. Compared with patients who received education alone, after 3 months those in the ACT condition were more likely to use these coping strategies, to report better diabetes self-care, and to have glycated hemoglobin (HbA-sub(1C)) values in the target range. Mediational analyses indicated that changes in acceptance coping and self-management behavior mediated the impact of treatment on changes in HbA-sub(1C). Copyright 2007 APA, all rights reserved.
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            Meta-analysis of dropout from cognitive behavioral therapy: Magnitude, timing, and moderators.

            In this era of insistence on evidence-based treatments, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has emerged as a highly preferred choice for a spectrum of psychological disorders. Yet, it is by no means immune to some of the vagaries of client participation. Special concerns arise when clients drop out from treatment.
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              The third wave of cognitive behavioural therapies: what is new and what is effective?

              The purpose of this study was to shortly characterize the evolving psychotherapeutic methods summarized as 'third wave psychotherapies' and to review recent research on the therapeutic impact of these methods. 'Third wave psychotherapies' comprise a heterogeneous group of treatments, including acceptance and commitment treatment, behavioural activation, cognitive behavioural analysis system of psychotherapy, dialectical behavioural therapy, metacognitive therapy, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and schema therapy. Several randomized controlled trials, longitudinal case series and pilot studies have been performed during the past 3-5 years, showing the efficacy and effectiveness of 'third wave psychotherapies'. The third wave of behavioural psychotherapies is an important arena of modern psychotherapy. It has added considerably to the spectrum of empirically supported treatments for mental disorders and influenced research on psychotherapy. The presented methods open up treatment possibilities for patient groups such as borderline personality disorder, chronic depression or generalized anxiety disorder that had received only little specific attention in the past. The available evidence now allows considering all third wave treatments as empirically supported.

                Author and article information

                Front Psychiatry
                Front Psychiatry
                Front. Psychiatry
                Frontiers in Psychiatry
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                28 July 2020
                : 11
                : 711
                [1] 1 The National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders & Beijing Key Laboratory of Mental Disorders, Beijing Anding Hospital, Capital Medical University , Beijing, China
                [2] 2 Advanced Innovation Center for Human Brain Protection, Capital Medical University , Beijing, China
                [3] 3 School of Medicine, Griffith University , Gold Coast, QLD, Australia
                Author notes

                Edited by: Gary P. Brown, University of London, United Kingdom

                Reviewed by: Stirling Moorey, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, United Kingdom; Anna Chapman, Deakin University, Australia

                *Correspondence: Jing Sun, j.sun@ 123456griffith.edu.au

                This article was submitted to Psychological Therapies, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychiatry

                Copyright © 2020 Yang, Li and Sun

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 06 October 2019
                : 06 July 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 5, Equations: 0, References: 60, Pages: 18, Words: 9290
                Systematic Review

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                cognitive behavioral therapy,diabetes mellitus,glycaemic control,mood symptoms,meta-analysis


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