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      Effects of dietary fat on gut microbiota and faecal metabolites, and their relationship with cardiometabolic risk factors: a 6-month randomised controlled-feeding trial

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          Abstract

          Objective

          To investigate whether diets differing in fat content alter the gut microbiota and faecal metabolomic profiles, and to determine their relationship with cardiometabolic risk factors in healthy adults whose diet is in a transition from a traditional low-fat diet to a diet high in fat and reduced in carbohydrate.

          Methods

          In a 6-month randomised controlled-feeding trial, 217 healthy young adults (aged 18–35 years; body mass index <28 kg/m 2; 52% women) who completed the whole trial were included. All the foods were provided during the intervention period. The three isocaloric diets were: a lower-fat diet (fat 20% energy), a moderate-fat diet (fat 30% energy) and a higher-fat diet (fat 40% energy). The effects of the dietary interventions on the gut microbiota, faecal metabolomics and plasma inflammatory factors were investigated.

          Results

          The lower-fat diet was associated with increased α-diversity assessed by the Shannon index (p=0.03), increased abundance of Blautia (p=0.007) and Faecalibacterium (p=0.04), whereas the higher-fat diet was associated with increased Alistipes (p=0.04), Bacteroides (p<0.001) and decreased Faecalibacterium (p=0.04). The concentration of total short-chain fatty acids was significantly decreased in the higher-fat diet group in comparison with the other groups (p<0.001). The cometabolites p-cresol and indole, known to be associated with host metabolic disorders, were decreased in the lower-fat diet group. In addition, the higher-fat diet was associated with faecal enrichment in arachidonic acid and the lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis pathway as well as elevated plasma proinflammatory factors after the intervention.

          Conclusion

          Higher-fat consumption by healthy young adults whose diet is in a state of nutrition transition appeared to be associated with unfavourable changes in gut microbiota, faecal metabolomic profiles and plasma proinflammatory factors, which might confer adverse consequences for long-term health outcomes.

          Trial registration number

          NCT02355795; Results.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 52

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          Introducing mothur: open-source, platform-independent, community-supported software for describing and comparing microbial communities.

          mothur aims to be a comprehensive software package that allows users to use a single piece of software to analyze community sequence data. It builds upon previous tools to provide a flexible and powerful software package for analyzing sequencing data. As a case study, we used mothur to trim, screen, and align sequences; calculate distances; assign sequences to operational taxonomic units; and describe the alpha and beta diversity of eight marine samples previously characterized by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. This analysis of more than 222,000 sequences was completed in less than 2 h with a laptop computer.
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            Microbial ecology: human gut microbes associated with obesity.

            Two groups of beneficial bacteria are dominant in the human gut, the Bacteroidetes and the Firmicutes. Here we show that the relative proportion of Bacteroidetes is decreased in obese people by comparison with lean people, and that this proportion increases with weight loss on two types of low-calorie diet. Our findings indicate that obesity has a microbial component, which might have potential therapeutic implications.
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              Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome

              Long-term diet influences the structure and activity of the trillions of microorganisms residing in the human gut 1–5 , but it remains unclear how rapidly and reproducibly the human gut microbiome responds to short-term macronutrient change. Here, we show that the short-term consumption of diets composed entirely of animal or plant products alters microbial community structure and overwhelms inter-individual differences in microbial gene expression. The animal-based diet increased the abundance of bile-tolerant microorganisms (Alistipes, Bilophila, and Bacteroides) and decreased the levels of Firmicutes that metabolize dietary plant polysaccharides (Roseburia, Eubacterium rectale, and Ruminococcus bromii). Microbial activity mirrored differences between herbivorous and carnivorous mammals 2 , reflecting trade-offs between carbohydrate and protein fermentation. Foodborne microbes from both diets transiently colonized the gut, including bacteria, fungi, and even viruses. Finally, increases in the abundance and activity of Bilophila wadsworthia on the animal-based diet support a link between dietary fat, bile acids, and the outgrowth of microorganisms capable of triggering inflammatory bowel disease 6 . In concert, these results demonstrate that the gut microbiome can rapidly respond to altered diet, potentially facilitating the diversity of human dietary lifestyles.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Gut
                Gut
                BMJ
                0017-5749
                1468-3288
                July 05 2019
                August 2019
                August 2019
                February 19 2019
                : 68
                : 8
                : 1417-1429
                10.1136/gutjnl-2018-317609
                © 2019

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