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      Increased Production of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor by T Cells in Patients with IgA Nephropathy

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          Background/Aim: Several studies have demonstrated an upregulation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) synthesis in experimental glomerulonephritis. To our best knowledge, no investigation of MIF production by T cells from patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) has been reported so far. MIF is one of the immunoregulatory cytokines involved in T-cell activation and delayed-type hypersensitivity. In this study, we examined MIF production of T cells from patients with IgAN to investigate the contribution of the cells to elevated serum MIF content and to its pathologic characteristics. Methods: We measured MIF production by T cells from the peripheral blood of 20 healthy controls and 20 patients with IgAN before and approximately 10 days after the beginning of steroid therapy. The disease controls included 20 patients with minimal-change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) before therapy. MIF concentrations in the supernatants of T-cell cultures were measured with a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We also investigated the relationship between MIF levels and disease activity. Results: The mean level for MIF in patients with IgAN was significantly elevated compared with that of healthy controls and also higher than that of patients with MCNS. When T cells were stimulated by concanavalin A, MIF production by T cells of patients with IgAN was more enhanced than in control subjects or patients with MCNS. We also investigated the relationship between MIF levels and pathological features in IgAN patients. Our findings reveal that MIF levels correlated with the grade of glomerular crescent formation and immunofluorescent C3 deposits in the glomeruli. Moreover, MIF overproduction was significantly related to the acute exacerbation stage of IgAN patients. Elevated MIF levels during the acute phase or exacerbations were found to be decreased during spontaneous or steroid therapy-induced remission in all IgAN patients examined. Conclusions: We provide data indicating that a T-cell population isolated by negative selection from peripheral blood mononuclear cells shows increased in vitro production of MIF in IgAN, and a reduction in that production when patients are treated with corticosteroids. In this paper, we describe the hypothetical role of MIF in the pathophysiology of IgAN.

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          A sex difference in the human brain and its relation to transsexuality.

          Transsexuals have the strong feeling, often from childhood onwards, of having been born the wrong sex. The possible psychogenic or biological aetiology of transsexuality has been the subject of debate for many years. Here we show that the volume of the central subdivision of the bed nucleus of the stria terminals (BSTc), a brain area that is essential for sexual behaviour, is larger in men than in women. A female-sized BSTc was found in male-to-female transsexuals. The size of the BSTc was not influenced by sex hormones in adulthood and was independent of sexual orientation. Our study is the first to show a female brain structure in genetically male transsexuals and supports the hypothesis that gender identity develops as a result of an interaction between the developing brain and sex hormones.
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            The Pathogenic Role of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in Immunologically Induced Kidney Disease in the Rat

            Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays a pivotal role in the inflammatory response in endotoxemia and in the delayed-type hypersensitivity response, but its potential as a regulator of immunologically induced disease is unknown. We have addressed this issue by administering a neutralizing anti-MIF antibody in a rat model of immunologically induced crescentic anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) glomerulonephritis. Six individual experiments using paired inbred littermates were performed. Rats were primed with rabbit immunoglobulin on day −5 and then injection with rabbit anti–rat GBM serum on day 0. Pairs of animals were treated with anti-MIF or a control monoclonal antibody from the time of anti-GBM serum administration until being killed 14 d later. Control antibody-treated animals developed severe proteinuria and renal function impairment with severe histological damage due to marked leukocytic infiltration and activation within the kidney. In contrast, anti-MIF treatment substantially reduced proteinuria, prevented the loss of renal function, significantly reduced histological damage including glomerular crescent formation, and substantially inhibited renal leukocytic infiltration and activation (all P <0.001 compared with control treatment). Inhibition of renal disease by anti-MIF treatment was attributed to preventing the marked upregulation of interleukin-1β, leukocyte adhesion molecules including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression seen in the control antibody-treated animals. This inhibition of progressive renal injury was mirrored by the complete suppression of the skin delayed-type hypersensitivity response to the challenge antigen (rabbit IgG). Interestingly, anti-MIF treatment did not effect the secondary antibody response or immune deposition within the kidney, indicating that MIF participates in cellular-based immunity in this primed macrophage-dependent anti-GBM glomerulonephritis. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated a key regulatory role for MIF in the pathogenesis of immunologically induced kidney disease. These results argue that blocking MIF activity may be of benefit in the treatment of human rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, and suggest that MIF may be important in immune-mediated disease generally.
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              An essential regulatory role for macrophage migration inhibitory factor in T-cell activation.


                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                December 2001
                28 December 2001
                : 21
                : 6
                : 455-464
                aDepartment of Medical Technology, College of Medical Sciences, Saitama Prefectural University, Koshigaya, Saitama, and bSecond Department of Internal Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
                46649 Am J Nephrol 2001;21:455–464
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 8, References: 18, Pages: 10
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/46649
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