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      Twelve-Year Television Viewing Time Trajectories and Physical Function in Older Adults :

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          Is television viewing time a marker of a broader pattern of sedentary behavior?

          Television (TV) viewing time is associated with abnormal glucose metabolism, the metabolic syndrome, and risk of type 2 diabetes; associations are stronger and more consistent in women. One explanation of this difference may be that TV viewing is a marker of an overall pattern of sedentary behavior in women. We sought to examine associations of TV viewing time with other sedentary behaviors and with leisure-time physical activity in a large sample of Australian adults. Adults aged between 20 and 65 years (n = 2,046) completed a self-administered questionnaire on TV viewing, five other leisure-time sedentary behaviors, and leisure-time physical activity. Mean adjusted time spent in other sedentary behaviors and in physical activity was compared across TV-time categories previously shown to be associated with abnormal glucose metabolism. After adjustment for body mass index and socio-demographic variables, women's time spent watching TV was associated positively with time in other sedentary behaviors and negatively with leisure-time physical activity, but no such associations were observed in men. TV viewing time may be a robust marker of a sedentary lifestyle in women but not in men. Gender differences in the pattern of sedentary behaviors may explain at least in part the gender differences in the previously reported associations of TV viewing time with biological attributes related to type 2 diabetes.
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            Test-retest reliability of isokinetic knee extension and flexion.

            To assess reliability of isokinetic peak torque and work for knee flexion and extension. Single-group test-retest. University laboratory. Eleven men and 7 women (mean age, 21 y). Not applicable. Peak torque and work for concentric and eccentric knee extension and flexion were recorded at 60 degrees/s for 3 trials on 2 occasions. Intraclass correlation coefficient model 3,1 (ICC(3,1)), standard error (SE) of measurements, and smallest real differences were calculated for the maximum and for the mean peak torque and work of the 3 repetitions. Relative reliability was "very high" for peak torque and work (ICC range, >.90). The SE measurements ranged between 5% and 10% of the initial values for both peak torque and work. The smallest change that indicates a real improvement for a single subject (smallest real differences) ranged from 12% to 25% for peak torque and work variables and from 25% to 30% for the peak torque ratios. Isokinetic concentric and eccentric knee extensor and flexor strength variables are reliable when measured by the same examiner in asymptomatic subjects.
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              Screen-Based Sedentary Behavior, Physical Activity, and Muscle Strength in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

              Background Sarcopenia is associated with loss of independence and ill-health in the elderly although the causes remain poorly understood. We examined the association between two screen-based leisure time sedentary activities (daily TV viewing time and internet use) and muscle strength. Methods and Results We studied 6228 men and women (aged 64.9±9.1 yrs) from wave 4 (2008-09) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, a prospective study of community dwelling older adults. Muscle strength was assessed by a hand grip test and the time required to complete five chair rises. TV viewing and internet usage were inversely associated with one another. Participants viewing TV ≥6hrs/d had lower grip strength (Men, B = −1.20 kg, 95% CI, −2.26, −0.14; Women, −0.75 kg, 95% CI, −1.48, −0.03) in comparison to <2hrs/d TV, after adjustment for age, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, chronic disease, disability, depressive symptoms, social status, and body mass index. In contrast, internet use was associated with higher grip strength (Men, B = 2.43 kg, 95% CI, 1.74, 3.12; Women, 0.76 kg, 95% CI, 0.32, 1.20). These associations persisted after mutual adjustment for both types of sedentary behaviour. Conclusions In older adults, the association between sedentary activities and physical function is context specific (TV viewing vs. computer use). Adverse effects of TV viewing might reflect the prolonged sedentary nature of this behavior.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
                Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0195-9131
                2017
                July 2017
                : 49
                : 7
                : 1359-1365
                Article
                10.1249/MSS.0000000000001243
                © 2017

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