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      Facilitated saliva secretion and reduced oral inflammation by a novel artificial saliva system in the treatment of salivary hypofunction

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          Abstract

          Saliva substitutes and/or lubricants are commonly employed to lessen dry mouth symptoms by stimulating and/or substituting for the secretion of saliva. In this study, a novel artificial saliva containing inorganic salts, including sodium chloride and potassium chloride, and bactericidal agents, including potassium thiocyanate and lactoperoxidase, was formulated in the form of a solution (DM-sol) or gel (DM-gel). Those in vivo therapeutic efficacies were assessed in terms of saliva secretion and anti-inflammatory activity in rats and mice, respectively. Salivary secretion was promoted by mucosal application of DM-formulations in normal rats. In particular, DM-gel resulted in 2.5- and 1.9-fold greater salivary flow rates compared to normal saline and DM-sol, respectively. In an in vivo efficacy evaluation in diabetic mice with salivary hypofunction, repeated application of DM-formulations alleviated histopathological changes in the buccal mucosa in terms of atrophy and thinning of the epithelium, compared to vehicle, after 4 weeks. Moreover, the DM-sol and DM-gel were comparably effective for relieving periodontal gingivitis, reducing infiltration of inflammatory cells, and normalizing the neutrophil level in the gingival gingiva, after 4 weeks. Therefore, the novel artificial saliva is expected to facilitate salivary secretion and restore physiological conditions in the mouth of patients with salivary hypofunction.

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          Most cited references 31

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          What's new in lysozyme research? Always a model system, today as yesterday.

          The present review is focused on the main achievements realized in the lysozyme research field since the meeting held in 1972 to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the discovery of this enzyme. Despite of extensive structural, physico-chemical, crystallographic, genetic, immunological and evolutionary studies devoted to lysozymes, their biological role is still not exactly known.
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            The rôle of saliva in maintaining oral health and as an aid to diagnosis.

             M C Llena-Puy (2006)
            Saliva is a complex secretion. 93% by volume is secreted by the major salivary glands and the remaining 7% by the minor glands. 99% of saliva is water and the other 1% is composed of organic and inorganic molecules. While the quantity of saliva is important, so is its quality. The components of saliva, its functions in maintaining oral health and the main factors that cause alterations in salivary secretion will be reviewed, the importance of saliva in caries development and bacterial plaque formation will be discussed and its role as an aid to diagnosing certain pathologies will be examined. Variations in salivary flow can be affected, reversibly or irreversibly, by numerous physiological and pathological factors. Saliva plays an essential role in maintaining the integrity of the oral structures, in personal relationships, in the digestion and in controlling oral infection. The part that saliva plays in protecting teeth from caries can be summarised under four aspects: diluting and eliminating sugars and other substances, buffer capacity, balancing demineralisation/remineralisation and antimicrobial action. Saliva is a promising option for diagnosing certain disorders and monitoring the evolution of certain pathologies or the dosage of medicines or drugs. Its advantages as a diagnostic tool include its being easy to obtain and the positive correlation between many parameters in serum and saliva.
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              Extracellular neutrophil traps in periodontitis.

              Chronic periodontitis, the chronic inflammatory disease of the periodontium, is caused by bacteria and is characterized by an influx of neutrophils into the gingival crevice. Recently, a 'new' extracellular neutrophil defense mechanism - neutrophil extracellular traps - has been described. However, their role in periodontitis has not yet been investigated. Clinical examinations, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, as well as cytology and confocal laser-scanning microscopy, were employed to analyze gingiva biopsies and crevicular exudate from patients with chronic periodontitis. An abundance of neutrophil extracellular traps and some phagocytic neutrophils was found on the gingival pocket surface and in the purulent crevicular exudate. Finding neutrophil extracellular traps in the spontaneously effused purulent crevicular exudate clearly indicated that they are flushed from the pocket by the crevicular exudate. In cases of dispersal of subgingival plaque bacteria, their trapping by neutrophil extracellular traps in purulent crevicular exudate and on the gingival surface was demonstrated. Trapping the crevicular bacteria prevents their adhesion to and invasion of the gingiva. The combination of neutrophil extracellular traps and crevicular exudate outflow appears to be a 'novel' defense mechanism for the clearance of crevicular bacteria in chronic periodontitis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2017
                11 January 2017
                : 11
                : 185-191
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Pharmaceutical Product Research Laboratories, Dong-A ST Research Institute, Gyeonggi
                [2 ]Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Dankook University, Cheonan, Chungnam, Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Myung Joo Kang, Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Dankook University, 119 Dandae-ro, Dongnam-gu, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-714, Korea, Tel +82 41 550 1446, Fax +82 41 550 7899, Email kangmj@ 123456dankook.ac.kr
                Article
                dddt-11-185
                10.2147/DDDT.S121254
                5241125
                © 2017 Kang et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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