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      Validity and responsiveness of EuroQol-5 dimension (EQ-5D) versus Short Form-6 dimension (SF-6D) questionnaire in chronic pain

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          Abstract

          Background

          Assessments of health-related quality of life and particularly utility values are important components of health economic analyses. Several instruments have been developed to measure utilities. However no consensus has emerged regarding the most appropriate instrument within a therapeutic area such as chronic pain. The study compared two instruments – EQ-5D and SF-6D – for their performance and validity in patients with chronic pain.

          Methods

          Pooled data from three randomised, controlled clinical trials with two active treatment groups were used. The included patients suffered from osteoarthritis knee pain or low back pain. Differences between the utility measures were compared in terms of mean values at baseline and endpoint, Bland–Altman analysis, correlation between the dimensions, construct validity, and responsiveness.

          Results

          The analysis included 1977 patients, most with severe pain on the Numeric Rating Scale. The EQ-5D showed a greater mean change from baseline to endpoint compared with the SF-6D (0.43 to 0.58 versus 0.59 to 0.64). Bland–Altman analysis suggested the difference between two measures depended on the health status of a patient. Spearmans rank correlation showed moderate correlation between EQ-5D and SF-6D dimensions. Construct validity showed both instruments could differentiate between patient subgroups with different severities of adverse events and analgesic efficacies but larger differences were detected with the EQ-5D. Similarly, when anchoring the measures to a disease-specific questionnaire – Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) – both questionnaires could differentiate between WOMAC severity levels but the EQ-5D showed greater differences. Responsiveness was also higher with the EQ-5D and for the subgroups in which improvements in health status were expected or when WOMAC severity level was reduced the improvements with EQ-5D were higher than with SF-6D.

          Conclusions

          This analysis showed that the mean EQ-5D scores were lower than mean SF-6D scores in patients with chronic pain. EQ-5D seemed to have higher construct validity and responsiveness in these patients.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement.

          In clinical measurement comparison of a new measurement technique with an established one is often needed to see whether they agree sufficiently for the new to replace the old. Such investigations are often analysed inappropriately, notably by using correlation coefficients. The use of correlation is misleading. An alternative approach, based on graphical techniques and simple calculations, is described, together with the relation between this analysis and the assessment of repeatability.
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            The estimation of a preference-based measure of health from the SF-36.

            This paper reports on the findings of a study to derive a preference-based measure of health from the SF-36 for use in economic evaluation. The SF-36 was revised into a six-dimensional health state classification called the SF-6D. A sample of 249 states defined by the SF-6D have been valued by a representative sample of 611 members of the UK general population, using standard gamble. Models are estimated for predicting health state valuations for all 18,000 states defined by the SF-6D. The econometric modelling had to cope with the hierarchical nature of the data and its skewed distribution. The recommended models have produced significant coefficients for levels of the SF-6D, which are robust across model specification. However, there are concerns with some inconsistent estimates and over prediction of the value of the poorest health states. These problems must be weighed against the rich descriptive ability of the SF-6D, and the potential application of these models to existing and future SF-36 data set.
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              The burden of neuropathic pain: results from a cross-sectional survey.

              There are few published data on the treatment patterns and burden of neuropathic pain. We have investigated this in a large, observational, cross-sectional survey. We surveyed 602 patients with neuropathic pain recruited from general practitioners in six European countries. Physicians recorded demographic and treatment information, including prescription medications. Patients completed Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) severity and interference questions, the EuroQol (EQ-5D), and questions about their productivity, non-prescription treatments, and frequency of physician visits. The BPI Pain Severity score (range: 0-10) is the mean of worst, least, average, and current pain ratings, with scores of 4-6 and 7-10 considered moderate and severe, respectively. We evaluated the impact of pain severity on functioning using analysis of variance models and chi2 tests. Mean (SD) age was 62.9 (14.4) years (50% female). Most patients reported moderate (54%) or severe (25%) pain. Nearly all patients (93%) were prescribed medications for their neuropathic pain: analgesics (71%); anti-epileptics (51%); antidepressants (29%); sedatives/hypnotics (15%). Seventy-six percent visited their physician at least once in the past month. Employment status was affected in 43% of patients; those employed missed a mean (SD) of 5.5 (9.8) workdays during the past month. Pain severity was associated significantly (P<0.001) with poorer EQ-5D scores (mild=0.67, moderate=0.46, severe=0.16), greater disruption of employment status (mild=24%, moderate=48%, severe=54%), and more frequent physician visits (% with one or more visits: mild=66%, moderate=79%, severe=83%). Patients with neuropathic pain visit their physician frequently and report substantial pain that interferes with daily functioning despite receiving treatment.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Health Qual Life Outcomes
                Health Qual Life Outcomes
                Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
                BioMed Central
                1477-7525
                2013
                1 July 2013
                : 11
                : 110
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Grunenthal GmbH, Zieglerstrasse 6, Aachen 52099, Germany
                Article
                1477-7525-11-110
                10.1186/1477-7525-11-110
                3722016
                23815777
                Copyright © 2013 Obradovic et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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