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      Planck2015 results : XIII. Cosmological parameters

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      Astronomy & Astrophysics
      EDP Sciences
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          Observational Evidence from Supernovae for an Accelerating Universe and a Cosmological Constant

          We present observations of 10 type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) between 0.16 0) and a current acceleration of the expansion (i.e., q_0 0, the spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia are consistent with q_0 0 at the 3.0 sigma and 4.0 sigma confidence levels, for two fitting methods respectively. Fixing a ``minimal'' mass density, Omega_M=0.2, results in the weakest detection, Omega_Lambda>0 at the 3.0 sigma confidence level. For a flat-Universe prior (Omega_M+Omega_Lambda=1), the spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia require Omega_Lambda >0 at 7 sigma and 9 sigma level for the two fitting methods. A Universe closed by ordinary matter (i.e., Omega_M=1) is ruled out at the 7 sigma to 8 sigma level. We estimate the size of systematic errors, including evolution, extinction, sample selection bias, local flows, gravitational lensing, and sample contamination. Presently, none of these effects reconciles the data with Omega_Lambda=0 and q_0 > 0.
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            Dynamics of dark energy

            In this paper we review in detail a number of approaches that have been adopted to try and explain the remarkable observation of our accelerating Universe. In particular we discuss the arguments for and recent progress made towards understanding the nature of dark energy. We review the observational evidence for the current accelerated expansion of the universe and present a number of dark energy models in addition to the conventional cosmological constant, paying particular attention to scalar field models such as quintessence, K-essence, tachyon, phantom and dilatonic models. The importance of cosmological scaling solutions is emphasized when studying the dynamical system of scalar fields including coupled dark energy. We study the evolution of cosmological perturbations allowing us to confront them with the observation of the Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure and demonstrate how it is possible in principle to reconstruct the equation of state of dark energy by also using Supernovae Ia observational data. We also discuss in detail the nature of tracking solutions in cosmology, particle physics and braneworld models of dark energy, the nature of possible future singularities, the effect of higher order curvature terms to avoid a Big Rip singularity, and approaches to modifying gravity which leads to a late-time accelerated expansion without recourse to a new form of dark energy.
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              Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis

              A critical review is given of the current status of cosmological nucleosynthesis. In the framework of the Standard Model with 3 types of relativistic neutrinos, the baryon-to-photon ratio, \(\eta\), corresponding to the inferred primordial abundances of deuterium and helium-4 is consistent with the independent determination of \(\eta\) from observations of anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. However the primordial abundance of lithium-7 inferred from observations is significantly below its expected value. Taking systematic uncertainties in the abundance estimates into account, there is overall concordance in the range \(\eta = (5.7-6.7)\times 10^{-10}\) at 95% CL (corresponding to a cosmological baryon density \(\Omega_B h^2 = 0.021 - 0.025\)). The D and He-4 abundances, when combined with the CMB determination of \(\eta\), provide the bound \(N_\nu=3.28 \pm 0.28\) on the effective number of neutrino species. Other constraints on new physics are discussed briefly.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Astronomy & Astrophysics
                A&A
                EDP Sciences
                0004-6361
                1432-0746
                October 2016
                September 20 2016
                : 594
                :
                : A13
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Planck Collaboration
                Article
                10.1051/0004-6361/201525830
                88ff526e-60bb-4f97-9602-627ddd5fa9d6
                © 2016
                History

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