To assess the effect of long-term propranolol therapy on uremic osteodystrophy, we evaluated retrospectively the biochemical, X-ray, and bone histological changes in 9 dialysed hypertensives who had been on propranolol treatment for periods ranging from 1 to 8 years. The control group included 9 well-matched dialysed uremics never treated with beta-blockers. The two groups did not differ in serum ionized calcium or iPTH levels. The incidence of bone resorption evaluated on X-ray findings and on bone biopsy specimens was of a comparable degree in the two groups. Our data show that propranolol even if started early in the course of renal failure, is of no benefit in preventing uremic bone disease.