Blog
About

8
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Head Lice of Pygmies Reveal the Presence of Relapsing Fever Borreliae in the Republic of Congo

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Background

          Head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, occur in four divergent mitochondrial clades (A, B, C and D), each having particular geographical distributions. Recent studies suggest that head lice, as is the case of body lice, can act as a vector for louse-borne diseases. Therefore, understanding the genetic diversity of lice worldwide is of critical importance to our understanding of the risk of louse-borne diseases.

          Methodology/Principal Findings

          Here, we report the results of the first molecular screening of pygmies’ head lice in the Republic of Congo for seven pathogens and an analysis of lice mitochondrial clades. We developed two duplex clade-specific real-time PCRs and identified three major mitochondrial clades: A, C, and D indicating high diversity among the head lice studied. We identified the presence of a dangerous human pathogen, Borrelia recurrentis, the causative agent of relapsing fever, in ten clade A head lice, which was not reported in the Republic of Congo, and B. theileri in one head louse. The results also show widespread infection among head lice with several species of Acinetobacter. A. junii was the most prevalent, followed by A. ursingii, A. baumannii, A. johnsonii, A. schindleri, A. lwoffii, A. nosocomialis and A. towneri.

          Conclusions/Significance

          Our study is the first to show the presence of B. recurrentis in African pygmies’ head lice in the Republic of Congo. This study is also the first to report the presence of DNAs of B. theileri and several species of Acinetobacter in human head lice. Further studies are needed to determine whether the head lice can transmit these pathogenic bacteria from person to another.

          Author Summary

          Head lice, Pediculus capitis humanus, and body lice, Pediculus h. humanus, are obligatory ectoparasites that feed exclusively on human blood. Currently, the body louse is the only recognized vector of at least three deadly bacterial pathogens that have killed millions of peoples, namely: Rickettsia prowazekii, Bartonella quintana and Borrelia recurrentis, responsible for epidemic typhus, trench fever and relapsing fever, respectively. In this work, we aimed to study the genetic diversity of head lice collected from African Pygmies in the Republic of Congo and to look for louse-borne pathogens in these lice. We detected B. recurrentis in head lice belonged to clade A that is prevalent in the Republic of Congo. Our study also show, for the first time, the presence of DNAs of B. theileri and several species of Acinetobacter in human head lice. Despite several investigations into the transmissibility of numerous infectious agents, no conclusive evidence has demonstrated the transmission of disease by head lice. That said, we believe that pathogens detected in head lice may be an indirect tool for evaluating the risk of louse-borne diseases in humans.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 44

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0.

          We announce the release of an advanced version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software, which currently contains facilities for building sequence alignments, inferring phylogenetic histories, and conducting molecular evolutionary analysis. In version 6.0, MEGA now enables the inference of timetrees, as it implements the RelTime method for estimating divergence times for all branching points in a phylogeny. A new Timetree Wizard in MEGA6 facilitates this timetree inference by providing a graphical user interface (GUI) to specify the phylogeny and calibration constraints step-by-step. This version also contains enhanced algorithms to search for the optimal trees under evolutionary criteria and implements a more advanced memory management that can double the size of sequence data sets to which MEGA can be applied. Both GUI and command-line versions of MEGA6 can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Clustal W and Clustal X version 2.0.

            The Clustal W and Clustal X multiple sequence alignment programs have been completely rewritten in C++. This will facilitate the further development of the alignment algorithms in the future and has allowed proper porting of the programs to the latest versions of Linux, Macintosh and Windows operating systems. The programs can be run on-line from the EBI web server: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/tools/clustalw2. The source code and executables for Windows, Linux and Macintosh computers are available from the EBI ftp site ftp://ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/software/clustalw2/
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              DnaSP v5: a software for comprehensive analysis of DNA polymorphism data.

               P Librado,  J Rozas (2009)
              DnaSP is a software package for a comprehensive analysis of DNA polymorphism data. Version 5 implements a number of new features and analytical methods allowing extensive DNA polymorphism analyses on large datasets. Among other features, the newly implemented methods allow for: (i) analyses on multiple data files; (ii) haplotype phasing; (iii) analyses on insertion/deletion polymorphism data; (iv) visualizing sliding window results integrated with available genome annotations in the UCSC browser. Freely available to academic users from: (http://www.ub.edu/dnasp).
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS Negl Trop Dis
                PLoS Negl Trop Dis
                plos
                plosntds
                PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1935-2727
                1935-2735
                2 December 2016
                December 2016
                : 10
                : 12
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Unité de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses Tropicales Emergentes (URMITE), Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France
                [2 ]Laboratoire national de santé publique, Brazzaville, République du Congo
                [3 ]Campus International UCAD-IRD, Dakar, Senegal
                Baylor College of Medicine, UNITED STATES
                Author notes

                The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                • Conceived and designed the experiments: OM FF DR JA.

                • Performed the experiments: NA FF DR OM.

                • Analyzed the data: NA BD FF DR OM.

                • Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JA GMN NSN BD OM FF DR.

                • Wrote the paper: NA OM FF DR JA BD HJP GMN NSN.

                Article
                PNTD-D-16-01279
                10.1371/journal.pntd.0005142
                5135033
                27911894
                © 2016 Amanzougaghene et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 4, Pages: 18
                Product
                Funding
                The authors thank IHU Méditerranée Infection for financially supporting the study. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Epidemiology
                Disease Vectors
                Insect Vectors
                Lice
                Head Lice
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Animals
                Invertebrates
                Arthropoda
                Insects
                Lice
                Head Lice
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Bacteria
                Acinetobacter
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Microbiology
                Medical Microbiology
                Microbial Pathogens
                Bacterial Pathogens
                Acinetobacter
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
                Pathogens
                Microbial Pathogens
                Bacterial Pathogens
                Acinetobacter
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Evolutionary Biology
                Population Genetics
                Haplotypes
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Genetics
                Population Genetics
                Haplotypes
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Population Biology
                Population Genetics
                Haplotypes
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Infectious Diseases
                Bacterial Diseases
                Acinetobacter Infections
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Epidemiology
                Disease Vectors
                Insect Vectors
                Lice
                Body Lice
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Animals
                Invertebrates
                Arthropoda
                Insects
                Lice
                Body Lice
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Bacteria
                Borrelia
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Microbiology
                Medical Microbiology
                Microbial Pathogens
                Bacterial Pathogens
                Borrelia
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
                Pathogens
                Microbial Pathogens
                Bacterial Pathogens
                Borrelia
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Infectious Diseases
                Bacterial Diseases
                Borrelia Infection
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Evolutionary Biology
                Population Genetics
                Haplogroups
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Genetics
                Population Genetics
                Haplogroups
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Population Biology
                Population Genetics
                Haplogroups
                Custom metadata
                All sequences of cytb haplotypes of Pediculus humanus, flab sequences of Borrelia, rpoB sequences of Acinetobacter species and Moraxellaceae are available in GenBank under accession number: KX444538-KX444552, KX444533-KX444534, KX444507-KX444532 and KX444535-KX444537, respectively.

                Infectious disease & Microbiology

                Comments

                Comment on this article