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      Water pollution in Bangladesh and its impact on public health

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          Abstract

          Bangladesh – one of the most densely populated countries of the world— has plentiful water sources, but these sources are being polluted continuously. Both surface water and groundwater sources are contaminated with different contaminants like toxic trace metals, coliforms as well as other organic and inorganic pollutants. As most of the population uses these water sources, especially groundwater sources which contain an elevated amount of arsenic throughout the country; health risk regarding consuming water is very high. Death due to water-borne diseases is widespread in Bangladesh, particularly among children. Anthropogenic sources such as untreated industrial effluents, improper disposal of domestic waste, agricultural runoffs are the main contributors regarding water pollution. A total water pollution status of this country, as well as the sources of this severe condition, is crucial to evaluate public health risk. For this purpose, we reviewed hundreds of well recognized international and national journals, conference proceedings and other related documents to draw a complete picture of recent water pollution status and its impact on public health; also the sources of water pollution are identified.

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          Impact of prenatal chlorpyrifos exposure on neurodevelopment in the first 3 years of life among inner-city children.

          The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos on 3-year neurodevelopment and behavior in a sample of inner-city minority children. As part of an ongoing prospective cohort study in an inner-city minority population, neurotoxicant effects of prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos were evaluated in 254 children through the first 3 years of life. This report examined cognitive and motor development at 12, 24, and 36 months (measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II) and child behavior at 36 months (measured with the Child Behavior Checklist) as a function of chlorpyrifos levels in umbilical cord plasma. Highly exposed children (chlorpyrifos levels of >6.17 pg/g plasma) scored, on average, 6.5 points lower on the Bayley Psychomotor Development Index and 3.3 points lower on the Bayley Mental Development Index at 3 years of age compared with those with lower levels of exposure. Children exposed to higher, compared with lower, chlorpyrifos levels were also significantly more likely to experience Psychomotor Development Index and Mental Development Index delays, attention problems, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder problems, and pervasive developmental disorder problems at 3 years of age. The adjusted mean 36-month Psychomotor Development Index and Mental Development Index scores of the highly and lower exposed groups differed by only 7.1 and 3.0 points, respectively, but the proportion of delayed children in the high-exposure group, compared with the low-exposure group, was 5 times greater for the Psychomotor Development Index and 2.4 times greater for the Mental Development Index, increasing the number of children possibly needing early intervention services.
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            Heavy metal pollution in surface water and sediment: A preliminary assessment of an urban river in a developing country

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              Role of iron in carcinogenesis: cancer as a ferrotoxic disease.

              Iron is abundant universally. During the evolutionary processes, humans have selected iron as a carrier of oxygen inside the body. However, iron works as a double-edged sword, and its excess is a risk for cancer, presumably via generation of reactive oxygen species. Thus far, pathological conditions such as hemochromatosis, chronic viral hepatitis B and C, exposure to asbestos fibers, as well as endometriosis have been recognized as iron overload-associated risks for human cancer. Indeed, iron is carcinogenic in animal experiments. These reports unexpectedly revealed that there are target genes in iron-induced carcinogenesis and that iron-catalyzed oxidative DNA damage is not random in vivo. Several iron transporters and hepcidin, a peptide hormone regulating iron metabolism, were discovered in the past decade. Furthermore, a recent epidemiological study reported that iron reduction by phlebotomy decreased cancer risk in the apparently normal population. These results warrant reconsideration of the role of iron in carcinogenesis and suggest that fine control of body iron stores would be a wise strategy for cancer prevention.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Heliyon
                Heliyon
                Heliyon
                Elsevier
                2405-8440
                02 August 2019
                August 2019
                02 August 2019
                : 5
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [a ]Institute of Disaster Management and Vulnerability Studies, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh
                [b ]Institute of Leather Engineering and Technology, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh
                Author notes
                Article
                S2405-8440(19)35805-0 e02145
                10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02145
                6684462
                891a1090-ac35-489e-b8cd-c889b3b10633
                © 2019 The Author(s)

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                environmental health,environmental pollution,environmental risk assessment,environmental toxicology,public health,water pollution,bangladesh,heavy metal pollution,pesticides

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