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      Conductive two-dimensional titanium carbide 'clay' with high volumetric capacitance.

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          Abstract

          Safe and powerful energy storage devices are becoming increasingly important. Charging times of seconds to minutes, with power densities exceeding those of batteries, can in principle be provided by electrochemical capacitors--in particular, pseudocapacitors. Recent research has focused mainly on improving the gravimetric performance of the electrodes of such systems, but for portable electronics and vehicles volume is at a premium. The best volumetric capacitances of carbon-based electrodes are around 300 farads per cubic centimetre; hydrated ruthenium oxide can reach capacitances of 1,000 to 1,500 farads per cubic centimetre with great cyclability, but only in thin films. Recently, electrodes made of two-dimensional titanium carbide (Ti3C2, a member of the 'MXene' family), produced by etching aluminium from titanium aluminium carbide (Ti3AlC2, a 'MAX' phase) in concentrated hydrofluoric acid, have been shown to have volumetric capacitances of over 300 farads per cubic centimetre. Here we report a method of producing this material using a solution of lithium fluoride and hydrochloric acid. The resulting hydrophilic material swells in volume when hydrated, and can be shaped like clay and dried into a highly conductive solid or rolled into films tens of micrometres thick. Additive-free films of this titanium carbide 'clay' have volumetric capacitances of up to 900 farads per cubic centimetre, with excellent cyclability and rate performances. This capacitance is almost twice that of our previous report, and our synthetic method also offers a much faster route to film production as well as the avoidance of handling hazardous concentrated hydrofluoric acid.

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          Materials science. Where do batteries end and supercapacitors begin?

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            Intercalation and delamination of layered carbides and carbonitrides.

            Intercalation and delamination of two-dimensional solids in many cases is a requisite step for exploiting their unique properties. Herein we report on the intercalation of two-dimensional Ti3C2, Ti3CN and TiNbC-so called MXenes. Intercalation of hydrazine, and its co-intercalation with N,N-dimethylformamide, resulted in increases of the c-lattice parameters of surface functionalized f-Ti3C2, from 19.5 to 25.48 and 26.8 Å, respectively. Urea is also intercalated into f-Ti3C2. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that a hydrazine monolayer intercalates between f-Ti3C2 layers. Hydrazine is also intercalated into f-Ti3CN and f-TiNbC. When dimethyl sulphoxide is intercalated into f-Ti3C2, followed by sonication in water, the f-Ti3C2 is delaminated forming a stable colloidal solution that is in turn filtered to produce MXene 'paper'. The latter shows excellent Li-ion capacity at extremely high charging rates.
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              Are MXenes promising anode materials for Li ion batteries? Computational studies on electronic properties and Li storage capability of Ti3C2 and Ti3C2X2 (X = F, OH) monolayer.

              Density functional theory (DFT) computations were performed to investigate the electronic properties and Li storage capability of Ti(3)C(2), one representative MXene (M represents transition metals, and X is either C or/and N) material, and its fluorinated and hydroxylated derivatives. The Ti(3)C(2) monolayer acts as a magnetic metal, while its derived Ti(3)C(2)F(2) and Ti(3)C(2)(OH)(2) in their stable conformations are semiconductors with small band gaps. Li adsorption forms a strong Coulomb interaction with Ti(3)C(2)-based hosts but well preserves its structural integrity. The bare Ti(3)C(2) monolayer exhibits a low barrier for Li diffusion and high Li storage capacity (up to Ti(3)C(2)Li(2) stoichiometry). The surface functionalization of F and OH blocks Li transport and decreases Li storage capacity, which should be avoided in experiments. The exceptional properties, including good electronic conductivity, fast Li diffusion, low operating voltage, and high theoretical Li storage capacity, make Ti(3)C(2) MXene a promising anode material for Li ion batteries.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature
                Nature
                1476-4687
                0028-0836
                Dec 4 2014
                : 516
                : 7529
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and A. J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.
                Article
                nature13970
                10.1038/nature13970
                25470044
                89204497-d1fc-4195-b6fc-3f80573faaa9
                History

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