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      Hepatic oxidative DNA damage is associated with increased risk for hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis C

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          Although the oxidative stress frequently occurs in patients with chronic hepatitis C, its role in future hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development is unknown. Hepatic 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was quantified using liver biopsy samples from 118 naïve patients who underwent liver biopsy from 1995 to 2001. The predictability of 8-OHdG for future HCC development and its relations to epidemiologic, biochemical and histological baseline characteristics were evaluated. During the follow-up period (mean was 6.7±3.3 years), HCC was identified in 36 patients (30.5%). Univariate analysis revealed that 16 variables, including 8-OHdG counts (65.2±20.2 vs 40.0±23.5 cells per 10 5μm 2, P<0.0001), were significantly different between patients with and without HCC. Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that the hepatic 8-OHdG ( P=0.0058) and fibrosis ( P=0.0181) were independent predicting factors of HCC. Remarkably, 8-OHdG levels were positively correlated with body and hepatic iron storage markers ( vs ferritin, P<0.0001 vs hepatic iron score, P<0.0001). This study showed that oxidative DNA damage is associated with increased risk for HCC and hepatic 8-OHdG levels are useful as markers to identify the extreme high-risk subgroup. The strong correlation between hepatic DNA damage and iron overload suggests that the iron content may be a strong mediator of oxidative stress and iron reduction may reduce HCC incidence in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease.

          Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS, e.g. nitric oxide, NO(*)) are well recognised for playing a dual role as both deleterious and beneficial species. ROS and RNS are normally generated by tightly regulated enzymes, such as NO synthase (NOS) and NAD(P)H oxidase isoforms, respectively. Overproduction of ROS (arising either from mitochondrial electron-transport chain or excessive stimulation of NAD(P)H) results in oxidative stress, a deleterious process that can be an important mediator of damage to cell structures, including lipids and membranes, proteins, and DNA. In contrast, beneficial effects of ROS/RNS (e.g. superoxide radical and nitric oxide) occur at low/moderate concentrations and involve physiological roles in cellular responses to noxia, as for example in defence against infectious agents, in the function of a number of cellular signalling pathways, and the induction of a mitogenic response. Ironically, various ROS-mediated actions in fact protect cells against ROS-induced oxidative stress and re-establish or maintain "redox balance" termed also "redox homeostasis". The "two-faced" character of ROS is clearly substantiated. For example, a growing body of evidence shows that ROS within cells act as secondary messengers in intracellular signalling cascades which induce and maintain the oncogenic phenotype of cancer cells, however, ROS can also induce cellular senescence and apoptosis and can therefore function as anti-tumourigenic species. This review will describe the: (i) chemistry and biochemistry of ROS/RNS and sources of free radical generation; (ii) damage to DNA, to proteins, and to lipids by free radicals; (iii) role of antioxidants (e.g. glutathione) in the maintenance of cellular "redox homeostasis"; (iv) overview of ROS-induced signaling pathways; (v) role of ROS in redox regulation of normal physiological functions, as well as (vi) role of ROS in pathophysiological implications of altered redox regulation (human diseases and ageing). Attention is focussed on the ROS/RNS-linked pathogenesis of cancer, cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion injury, diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease), rheumatoid arthritis, and ageing. Topics of current debate are also reviewed such as the question whether excessive formation of free radicals is a primary cause or a downstream consequence of tissue injury.
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            Insertion of specific bases during DNA synthesis past the oxidation-damaged base 8-oxodG.

            Oxidative damage to DNA, reflected in the formation of 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), may be important in mutagenesis, carcinogenesis and the ageing process. Kuchino et al. studied DNA synthesis on oligodeoxynucleotide templates containing 8-oxodG, concluding that the modified base lacked base pairing specificity and directed misreading of pyrimidine residues neighbouring the lesion. Here we report different results, using an approach in which the several products of a DNA polymerase reaction can be measured. In contrast to the earlier report, we find that dCMP and dAMP are incorporated selectively opposite 8-oxodG with transient inhibition of chain extension occurring 3' to the modified base. The potentially mutagenic insertion of dAMP is targeted exclusively to the site of the lesion. The ratio of dCMP to dAMP incorporated varies, depending on the DNA polymerase involved. Chain extension from the dA.8-oxodG pair was efficiently catalysed by all polymerases tested.
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              Natural history of chronic hepatitis C.

              Much controversy surrounds the issue of the natural history of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Many authorities view the disease as inexorably progressive with a high probability of advancing over time to cirrhosis and occasionally hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and, therefore, likely to be responsible for causing death. Others regard chronic hepatitis C as having a variable outcome, the majority of infected persons not dying from the disease, but more likely from the comorbid conditions that so often accompany infection by this agent, or from more common medical conditions. Disagreements probably derive from the manner of conduct of the study and the populations studied. Efforts to determine natural history are handicapped by the primary characteristics of the disease, namely that its onset rarely is recognized and its course is prolonged exceedingly. Thus, different outcomes have come from retrospective rather than from prospective studies, but both have concluded that at least 20% of chronically infected adults develop cirrhosis within 20 years. More recent studies that used a retrospective/prospective approach, focusing largely on young infected individuals, have produced different results. Among these young people, particularly young women, spontaneous resolution of the viral infection is more common than previously thought and cirrhosis has been identified in 5% or fewer of them. The major failing for all groups studied, young and old, is that natural history studies have rarely exceeded the first 2 decades, so that outcome beyond this time is not known, other than through modeling. Several host-related and extraneous factors probably affect the natural history.

                Author and article information

                Br J Cancer
                British Journal of Cancer
                Nature Publishing Group
                29 January 2008
                05 February 2008
                12 February 2008
                : 98
                : 3
                : 580-586
                [1 ]simpleDepartment of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Division of Clinical Medicine and Biomedical Science, Institute of Medical Sciences, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine Mie, Japan
                [2 ]simpleDepartment of Anatomy, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine Mie, Japan
                [3 ]simpleFaculty of Health Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science Mie, Japan
                [4 ]simpleCenter for Physical and Mental Health, Mie University Mie, Japan
                Author notes
                [* ]Author for correspondence: nfujita@
                Copyright 2008, Cancer Research UK
                Molecular Diagnostics


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