Food processing wears down teeth, thus affecting tooth functionality and evolutionary success. Other than intrinsic silica phytoliths, extrinsic mineral dust/grit adhering to plants causes tooth wear in mammalian herbivores. Dental microwear texture analysis (DMTA) is widely applied to infer diet from microscopic dental wear traces. The relationship between external abrasives and dental microwear texture (DMT) formation remains elusive. Feeding experiments with sheep have shown negligible effects of dust-laden grass and browse, suggesting that intrinsic properties of plants are more important. Here, we explore the effect of clay- to sand-sized mineral abrasives (quartz, volcanic ash, loess, kaolin) on DMT in a controlled feeding experiment with guinea pigs. By adding 1, 4, 5, or 8% mineral abrasives to a pelleted base diet, we test for the effect of particle size, shape, and amount on DMT. Wear by fine-grained quartz (>5/<50 µm), loess, and kaolin is not significantly different from the abrasive-free control diet. Fine silt-sized quartz (∼5 µm) results in higher surface anisotropy and lower roughness (polishing effect). Coarse-grained volcanic ash leads to significantly higher complexity, while fine sands (130 to 166 µm) result in significantly higher roughness. Complexity and roughness values exceed those from feeding experiments with guinea pigs who received plants with different phytolith content. Our results highlight that large (>95-µm) external silicate abrasives lead to distinct microscopic wear with higher roughness and complexity than caused by mineral abrasive-free herbivorous diets. Hence, high loads of mineral dust and grit in natural diets might be identified by DMTA, also in the fossil record.