Medicinal herbs have been increasingly used worldwide for diseases prevention and treatment. Rheum turkestanicum Janisch. is a perennial shrub of the Polygonaceae family. Genus Rheum includes more than 60 species growing around the world which are used in foods and traditional medicines. R. turkestanicum is believed to be able to improve different kinds of disorders including diabetes, hypertension, jaundice and cancer. In recent years, this medicinal plant has been a subject of many experimental studies to document its health-beneficial properties. These studies have revealed antidiabetic, anticancer, nephroprotective, cardioprotective, and hepatoprotective properties of R. turkestanicum. The presence of flavonoids (e.g. epicatechin and quercetin) and anthraquinones (e.g. chrysophanol, physcion, and emodin) in R. turkestanicum justifies its health-beneficial effects. Nevertheless, possible therapeutic applications and safety of this plant still need to be elucidated in further clinical studies.