Objective To investigate correlations between motor skills with focused and shifting attention among preschool children, and to provide basis for the overall development of preschool children aged 4–6 years.
Methods During March to June 2020, a total of 165 preschool children aged 4–6 years were selected and investigated with subscales of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2nd Edition (BOT-2) for agility and limb bilateral coordination assessment, and subscales of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-test-2nd Edition (MABC-2) for throwing and catching skill assessment, as well as balance subscale for the assessment of limb movement coordination, hand-eye coordination, agility, and balance. The Kansas Reflection-Impulsivity Scale for Preschoolers for Pre-schoolers (KRISP) and Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS) were used to assess focused and shifting attention levels. Correlation and linear regression analyses were performed for statistical analysis.
Results Except for one-handed throwing skills and shifting attention, there were statistically significant gender differences between boys and girls in total score of body movement coordination, total score of hand-to-eye coordination, hand-to-hand connection, total score of agility of movement, total score of movement balance, static support, walking on tiptoe, foot-to-foot jump and focused attention ( t=−6.86, −2.00, −3.15, −3.75, −3.00, −2.95, −2.18, −2.11, −3.21, P<0.05), and girls were better than boys; children’s total score of body movement coordination, total score of hand-to-eye coordination, hand-to-hand connection, agility of movement, walking on tiptoe and focused attention improves with age ( r=0.47, 0.41, 0.47, 0.51, 0.16, 0.31, P<0.05); After excluding the interference of gender and age, total score of body movement coordination was significantly correlated with preschool children’s focused attention (β=0.31, 95% CI=0.08–0.39, P<0.01).
Conclusion Limb movement coordination and focused attention are significantly and positively correlated among preschool children aged 4–6 years. Therefore, preschool education and family activities should focus on designing and developing limb movement coordination-related games and courses to enhance the focused attention of and form favorable attention quality in preschool children aged 4–6 years.
【摘要】 目的 探究学龄前儿童动作技能与注意集中和注意转移的相关性, 为促进4~6岁学龄前儿童全面发展提供依 据。 方法 2020年3—6月, 以165名4~6岁学龄前儿童为研究对象, 采用布尼氏动作技能熟练度测试(BOT-2)灵敏分量 表和肢体双侧协调分量表、儿童动作技能测试量表(第2版)(MABC-2)抛接技能分量表和平衡分量表测试学龄前儿童肢 体动作协调、手眼协调、灵敏和平衡四类动作技能;采用美国堪萨斯州学前儿童反射冲动量表(KRISP)和维度变化卡片分 类任务(DCCS)评估被试注意集中和注意转移水平;采用相关分析和线性回归分析方法进行数理统计。 结果 除单手抛技 能和注意转移指标外, 男、女童在肢体动作协调总分、手眼协调总分、双手接、动作灵敏总分、动作平衡总分、静态支撑、踮脚 走线、双脚跳、注意集中指标上, 差异均有统计学意义 ( t 值分别为 −6.86, −2.00, −3.15, −3.75, −3.00, −2.95, −2.18, −2.11, −3.21, P 值均<0.05), 且女童优于男童;儿童肢体动作协调总分、手眼协调总分、双手接、动作灵敏、踮脚走线和注意集中指 标随年龄的增长而得到提髙 ( r 值分别为0.47, 0.41, 0.47, 0.51, 0.16, 0.31, P值均<0.05); 排除性别、月龄两项变量干扰后, 仅肢体动作协调总分与学龄前儿童注意集中呈正相关(β=0.31, 95% CI=0.08~0.39, P<0.01)。 结论 4~6岁儿童肢体动 作协调与注意集中呈正相关。学前教育和家庭亲子活动应重视肢体动作协调相关游戏、课程的设计与开发, 以促进4~6 岁学龄前儿童注意集中能力的提髙和良好注意品质的形成。