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      The effect of apixaban on the pharmacokinetics of digoxin and atenolol in healthy subjects

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Apixaban is often coadministered with treatments for cardiovascular comorbidities, which may lead to unintended drug–drug interactions (DDIs). The effects of apixaban on pharmacokinetics (PK) of multidose Lanoxin ® (digoxin) and single-dose Tenormin ® (atenolol) and the effects of single-dose atenolol on apixaban PK in healthy subjects were investigated in two Phase 1 studies.

          Patients and methods

          The digoxin DDI study was an open-label, multidose, two-treatment, single-sequence study in which subjects received digoxin 0.25 mg q6h on day 1, then once daily on days 2–10, followed by apixaban 20 mg and digoxin 0.25 mg once daily on days 11–20. The atenolol DDI study was an open-label, single-dose, randomized, three-period, three-treatment, crossover study in which subjects received a single oral dose of apixaban 10 mg, atenolol 100 mg, or apixaban 10 mg plus atenolol 100 mg. The 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for the ratios of geometric means of peak plasma concentration (C max) and area under the concentration–time curve (AUC tau), with and without apixaban were calculated. Absence of effect was concluded if the point estimates and 90% CI were within the equivalence interval of 80%–125% (digoxin) or 70%–143% (atenolol). A similar analysis was performed to assess the effect of atenolol on apixaban.

          Results

          Apixaban had no clinically relevant effect on the PK of either atenolol or digoxin: point estimates and 90% CI for both digoxin and atenolol C max and AUC were entirely within their respective no-effect intervals. Apixaban C max and AUC inf were slightly decreased (ie, 18% and 15% lower, respectively) following atenolol coadministration. No serious or major bleeding-related adverse events were reported during either study.

          Conclusion

          Apixaban had no effect on the PK of digoxin and there was no clinically relevant interaction between apixaban and atenolol. Coadministration of digoxin or atenolol with apixaban in healthy subjects was generally well tolerated.

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          Most cited references36

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          Apixaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after knee replacement (ADVANCE-2): a randomised double-blind trial.

          Low-molecular-weight heparins such as enoxaparin are preferred for prevention of venous thromboembolism after major joint replacement. Apixaban, an orally active factor Xa inhibitor, might be as effective, have lower bleeding risk, and be easier to use than is enoxaparin. We assessed efficacy and safety of these drugs after elective total knee replacement. In ADVANCE-2, a multicentre, randomised, double-blind phase 3 study, patients undergoing elective unilateral or bilateral total knee replacement were randomly allocated through an interactive central telephone system to receive oral apixaban 2.5 mg twice daily (n=1528) or subcutaneous enoxaparin 40 mg once daily (1529). The randomisation schedule was generated by the Bristol-Myers Squibb randomisation centre and stratified by study site and by unilateral or bilateral surgery with a block size of four. Investigators, patients, statisticians, adjudicators, and steering committee were masked to allocation. Apixaban was started 12-24 h after wound closure and enoxaparin 12 h before surgery; both drugs were continued for 10-14 days, when bilateral ascending venography was scheduled. Primary outcome was the composite of asymptomatic and symptomatic deep vein thrombosis, non-fatal pulmonary embolism, and all-cause death during treatment. The statistical plan required non-inferiority of apixaban before testing for superiority; analysis was by intention to treat for non-inferiority testing. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00452530. 1973 of 3057 patients allocated to treatment (1528 apixaban, 1529 enoxaparin) were eligible for primary efficacy analysis. The primary outcome was reported in 147 (15%) of 976 apixaban patients and 243 (24%) of 997 enoxaparin patients (relative risk 0.62 [95% CI 0.51-0.74]; p<0.0001; absolute risk reduction 9.3% [5.8-12.7]). Major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding occurred in 53 (4%) of 1501 patients receiving apixaban and 72 (5%) of 1508 treated with enoxaparin (p=0.09). Apixaban 2.5 mg twice daily, starting on the morning after total knee replacement, offers a convenient and more effective orally administered alternative to 40 mg per day enoxaparin, without increased bleeding. Bristol-Myers Squibb; Pfizer. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Apixaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after hip replacement.

            There are various regimens for thromboprophylaxis after hip replacement. Low-molecular-weight heparins such as enoxaparin predominantly inhibit factor Xa but also inhibit thrombin to some degree. Orally active, specific factor Xa inhibitors such as apixaban may provide effective thromboprophylaxis with a lower risk of bleeding and improved ease of use. In this double-blind, double-dummy study, we randomly assigned 5407 patients undergoing total hip replacement to receive apixaban at a dose of 2.5 mg orally twice daily or enoxaparin at a dose of 40 mg subcutaneously every 24 hours. Apixaban therapy was initiated 12 to 24 hours after closure of the surgical wound; enoxaparin therapy was initiated 12 hours before surgery. Prophylaxis was continued for 35 days after surgery, followed by bilateral venographic studies. The primary efficacy outcome was the composite of asymptomatic or symptomatic deep-vein thrombosis, nonfatal pulmonary embolism, or death from any cause during the treatment period. Patients were followed for an additional 60 days after the last intended dose of study medication. A total of 1949 patients in the apixaban group (72.0%) and 1917 patients in the enoxaparin group (71.0%) could be evaluated for the primary efficacy analysis. The primary efficacy outcome occurred in 27 patients in the apixaban group (1.4%) and in 74 patients in the enoxaparin group (3.9%) (relative risk with apixaban, 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.22 to 0.54; P<0.001 for both noninferiority and superiority; absolute risk reduction, 2.5 percentage points; 95% CI, 1.5 to 3.5). The composite outcome of major and clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding occurred in 129 of 2673 patients assigned to apixaban (4.8%) and 134 of 2659 assigned to enoxaparin (5.0%) (absolute difference in risk, -0.2 percentage points; 95% CI, -1.4 to 1.0). Among patients undergoing hip replacement, thromboprophylaxis with apixaban, as compared with enoxaparin, was associated with lower rates of venous thromboembolism, without increased bleeding. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb and Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00423319.).
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              Apixaban or enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after knee replacement.

              The optimal strategy for thromboprophylaxis after major joint replacement has not been established. Low-molecular-weight heparins such as enoxaparin predominantly target factor Xa but to some extent also inhibit thrombin. Apixaban, a specific factor Xa inhibitor, may provide effective thromboprophylaxis with a low risk of bleeding and improved ease of use. In a double-blind, double-dummy study, we randomly assigned patients undergoing total knee replacement to receive 2.5 mg of apixaban orally twice daily or 30 mg of enoxaparin subcutaneously every 12 hours. Both medications were started 12 to 24 hours after surgery and continued for 10 to 14 days. Bilateral venography was then performed. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of asymptomatic and symptomatic deep-vein thrombosis, nonfatal pulmonary embolism, and death from any cause during treatment. Patients were followed for 60 days after anticoagulation therapy was stopped. A total of 3195 patients underwent randomization, with 1599 assigned to the apixaban group and 1596 to the enoxaparin group; 908 subjects were not eligible for the efficacy analysis. The overall rate of primary events was much lower than anticipated. The rate of the primary efficacy outcome was 9.0% with apixaban as compared with 8.8% with enoxaparin (relative risk, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.78 to 1.32). The composite incidence of major bleeding and clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding was 2.9% with apixaban and 4.3% with enoxaparin (P=0.03). As compared with enoxaparin for efficacy of thromboprophylaxis after knee replacement, apixaban did not meet the prespecified statistical criteria for noninferiority, but its use was associated with lower rates of clinically relevant bleeding and it had a similar adverse-event profile. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00371683.) 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clin Pharmacol
                Clin Pharmacol
                Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
                Clinical Pharmacology : Advances and Applications
                Dove Medical Press
                1179-1438
                2017
                23 February 2017
                : 9
                : 19-28
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Exploratory Clinical and Translational Research, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ, USA
                [2 ]Medical Sciences, Amgen Asia R&D Center, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Global Biometric Sciences, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ
                [4 ]Clinical Research, Intercept Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, CA
                [5 ]Bioanalytical Sciences, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yan Song, Exploratory Clinical and Translational Research, 8A1.18, Bristol-Myers Squibb, 311 Pennington Rocky Hill Road, Pennington, NJ 08534-2130, USA, Tel +1 609 818 3561, Fax +1 609 818 3220, Email Yan.Song@ 123456bms.com
                Article
                cpaa-9-019
                10.2147/CPAA.S115687
                5327911
                896d51dd-72d3-4b45-910f-06bfa2e8ec80
                © 2017 Frost et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                oral anticoagulant,factor xa inhibitor,drug–drug interaction,phase 1

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