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      Different expressions of trypsin and chymotrypsin in relation to growth in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.)

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          Abstract

          The expressions of trypsin and chymotrypsin in the pyloric caeca of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) were studied in three experiments. Two internal (trypsin phenotypes, life stages) and three common external factors (starvation, feeding, temperatures) influencing growth rates were varied. Growth was stimulated by increased temperature and higher feeding rate, and it was depressed during starvation. The interaction between trypsin phenotype and start-feeding temperature affected specific activity of trypsin, but not of chymotrypsin. Trypsin specific activity and the activity ratio of trypsin to chymotrypsin (T/C ratio) increased when growth was promoted. Chymotrypsin specific activity, on the other hand, increased when there was a reduction in growth rate whereas fish with higher growth had higher chymotrypsin specific activity resulting in lower T/C ratio value. During a rapid growth phase, trypsin specific activity did not correlate with chymotrypsin specific activity. On the other hand, a relationship between specific activities of trypsin and chymotrypsin could be observed when growth declined, such as during food deprivation. Trypsin is the sensitive key protease under conditions favouring growth and genetically and environmentally affected, while chymotrypsin plays a major role when growth is limited or depressed. Trypsin specific activity and the T/C ratio value are shown to be important factors in the digestion process affecting growth rate, and could be applicable as indicators for growth studies of fish in captive cultures and in the wild, especially when food consumption rate cannot be measured.

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          Most cited references 54

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          Growth rate estimates for cultured Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout

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            The complete 685-kilobase DNA sequence of the human beta T cell receptor locus.

            The human beta T cell receptor (TCR) locus, comprising a complex family of genes, has been sequenced. The locus contains two types of coding elements--TCR elements (65 variable gene segments and two clusters of diversity, joining, and constant segments) and eight trypsinogen genes --that constitute 4.6 percent of the DNA. Genome-wide interspersed repeats and locus-specific repeats span 30 and 47 percent, respectively, of the 685-kilobase sequence. A comparison of the germline variable elements with their approximately 300 complementary DNA counterparts reveals marked differential patterns of variable gene expression, the importance of exonuclease activity in generating TCR diversity, and the predominant tendency for only functional variable elements to be present in complementary DNA libraries.
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              Soybean proteinase inhibitors affect intestinal trypsin activities and amino acid digestibilities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +47-56367539 , 47-56367585 , Krisnart@imr.no
                Journal
                Fish Physiol Biochem
                Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
                Springer Netherlands (Dordrecht )
                0920-1742
                1573-5168
                March 2006
                : 32
                : 1
                : 7-23
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute of Marine Research –Matre, N-5984 Matredal, Norway
                [2 ]National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research, P.O. Box 176, N-5804 Bergen, Norway
                Article
                630
                10.1007/s10695-005-0630-5
                3233903
                20035474
                © Springer 2006
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                Custom metadata
                © Springer 2006

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