22
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Impaired Nitric Oxide Synthase Pathway in Diabetes Mellitus : Role of Asymmetric Dimethylarginine and Dimethylarginine Dimethylaminohydrolase

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Background— An endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), is elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). This study explored the mechanisms by which ADMA becomes elevated in DM.

          Methods and Results— Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal chow or high-fat diet (n=5 in each) with moderate streptozotocin injection to induce type 2 DM. Plasma ADMA was elevated in diabetic rats (1.33±0.31 versus 0.48±0.08 μmol/L; P <0.05). The activity, but not the expression, of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) was reduced in diabetic rats and negatively correlated with their plasma ADMA levels ( P <0.05). DDAH activity was significantly reduced in vascular smooth muscle cells and human endothelial cells (HMEC-1) exposed to high glucose (25.5 mmol/L). The impairment of DDAH activity in vascular cells was associated with an accumulation of ADMA and a reduction in generation of cGMP. In human endothelial cells, coincubation with the antioxidant polyethylene glycol–conjugated superoxide dismutase (22 U/mL) reversed the effects of the high-glucose condition on DDAH activity, ADMA accumulation, and cGMP synthesis.

          Conclusions— A glucose-induced impairment of DDAH causes ADMA accumulation and may contribute to endothelial vasodilator dysfunction in DM.

          Related collections

          Most cited references27

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part 1: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus provisional report of a WHO consultation.

          The classification of diabetes mellitus and the tests used for its diagnosis were brought into order by the National Diabetes Data Group of the USA and the second World Health Organization Expert Committee on Diabetes Mellitus in 1979 and 1980. Apart from minor modifications by WHO in 1985, little has been changed since that time. There is however considerable new knowledge regarding the aetiology of different forms of diabetes as well as more information on the predictive value of different blood glucose values for the complications of diabetes. A WHO Consultation has therefore taken place in parallel with a report by an American Diabetes Association Expert Committee to re-examine diagnostic criteria and classification. The present document includes the conclusions of the former and is intended for wide distribution and discussion before final proposals are submitted to WHO for approval. The main changes proposed are as follows. The diagnostic fasting plasma (blood) glucose value has been lowered to > or =7.0 mmol l(-1) (6.1 mmol l(-1)). Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) is changed to allow for the new fasting level. A new category of Impaired Fasting Glycaemia (IFG) is proposed to encompass values which are above normal but below the diagnostic cut-off for diabetes (plasma > or =6.1 to or =5.6 to <6.1 mmol l(-1)). Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) now includes gestational impaired glucose tolerance as well as the previous GDM. The classification defines both process and stage of the disease. The processes include Type 1, autoimmune and non-autoimmune, with beta-cell destruction; Type 2 with varying degrees of insulin resistance and insulin hyposecretion; Gestational Diabetes Mellitus; and Other Types where the cause is known (e.g. MODY, endocrinopathies). It is anticipated that this group will expand as causes of Type 2 become known. Stages range from normoglycaemia to insulin required for survival. It is hoped that the new classification will allow better classification of individuals and lead to fewer therapeutic misjudgements.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Hyperglycemic pseudohypoxia and diabetic complications.

            Vasodilation and increased blood flow are characteristic early vascular responses to acute hyperglycemia and tissue hypoxia. In hypoxic tissues these vascular changes are linked to metabolic imbalances associated with impaired oxidation of NADH to NAD+ and the resulting increased ratio of NADH/NAD+. In hyperglycemic tissues these vascular changes also are linked to an increased ratio of NADH/NAD+, in this case because of an increased rate of reduction of NAD+ to NADH. Several lines of evidence support the likelihood that the increased cytosolic ratio of free NADH/NAD+ caused by hyperglycemia, referred to as pseudohypoxia because tissue partial pressure oxygen is normal, is a characteristic feature of poorly controlled diabetes that mimics the effects of true hypoxia on vascular and neural function and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. These effects of hypoxia and hyperglycemia-induced pseudohypoxia on vascular and neural function are mediated by a branching cascade of imbalances in lipid metabolism, increased production of superoxide anion, and possibly increased nitric oxide formation.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Nitric oxide synthase: role in the genesis of vascular disease.

              The product of nitric oxide (NO) synthase is the most potent endogenous vasodilator known. No not only is a potent vasodilator, it also inhibits platelet adherence and aggregation, reduces adherence of leukocytes to the endothelium, and suppresses proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. A number of disorders are associated with reduced synthesis and/or increased degradation of vascular NO. These include hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and tobacco use. The endothelial dysfunction caused by these disorders contributes to the alterations in vascular function and structure observed in these conditions. A reduction in the activity of vascular NO likely plays a significant role in the development of atherosclerosis. Insights into the mechanisms by which NO production or activity is altered in these states will lead to new therapeutic strategies in the treatment of a number of vascular disorders, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, restenosis, and thrombosis.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Circulation
                Circulation
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0009-7322
                1524-4539
                August 20 2002
                August 20 2002
                : 106
                : 8
                : 987-992
                Affiliations
                [1 ]From the Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, Calif (K.Y.L., A.I., T.A., P.S.T., S.A., G.M.R., J.P.C.), and the Department of Nutritional Science, Okayama Prefectural University, Soja, Okayama, Japan (M.K., H.T.).
                Article
                10.1161/01.CIR.0000027109.14149.67
                12186805
                89716e24-f363-4157-af18-0a09805b663d
                © 2002
                History

                Comments

                Comment on this article