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      First report on pollinating behavior of the small carpenter bee Ceratina ridleyi Cockerell (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in Globba leucantha var. bicolor Holttum (Zingiberaceae)

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          Abstract

          Small carpenter bees of the genus Ceratina are widespread, but little-studied as pollinators despite their presence in various pollinator assemblages. This study documents the importance of Ceratina ridleyi as a pollinator of the small-flowered Malaysian ginger Globba leucantha var. bicolor. Species of Zingiberaceae are defined by peculiar floral morphologies (e.g staminodes and a single functional anther) but are rarely studied for their insect pollinators. Surprisingly, C. ridleyi was revealed as the single pollinator of Globba leucantha’s showy flowers even though the presence of Apis sp., Trigona sp., and Amegilla sp. were observed in the study site. This small carpenter bee collects both pollen and nectar from the ginger flower. Pollen grains were observed attached to its scopal hairs and hairs on the ventral thorax and ventral abdomen. The bee contacts the flower’s sole stigma only during foraging for pollen, where the stigma contacts pollen accumulated on hairs of the bee’s ventral thorax and ventral abdomen. This study represents the first pollination report of a Ceratina pollinating a species of Zingiberaceae, and only the second report of any Ceratina pollinating a flower with complex morphology.

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          Wild pollinators enhance fruit set of crops regardless of honey bee abundance.

          The diversity and abundance of wild insect pollinators have declined in many agricultural landscapes. Whether such declines reduce crop yields, or are mitigated by managed pollinators such as honey bees, is unclear. We found universally positive associations of fruit set with flower visitation by wild insects in 41 crop systems worldwide. In contrast, fruit set increased significantly with flower visitation by honey bees in only 14% of the systems surveyed. Overall, wild insects pollinated crops more effectively; an increase in wild insect visitation enhanced fruit set by twice as much as an equivalent increase in honey bee visitation. Visitation by wild insects and honey bees promoted fruit set independently, so pollination by managed honey bees supplemented, rather than substituted for, pollination by wild insects. Our results suggest that new practices for integrated management of both honey bees and diverse wild insect assemblages will enhance global crop yields.
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            Pollination of Cypripedium plectrochilum (Orchidaceae) by Lasioglossum spp. (Halictidae): the roles of generalist attractants versus restrictive floral architecture

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              Three pollination guilds and variation in floral characteristics of Bornean gingers (Zingiberaceae and Costaceae).

              The pollinators of 29 ginger species representing 11 genera in relation to certain floral morphological characteristics in a mixed-dipterocarp forest in Borneo were investigated. Among the 29 species studied, eight were pollinated by spiderhunters (Nectariniidae), 11 by medium-sized Amegilla bees (Anthophoridae), and ten by small halictid bees. These pollination guilds found in gingers in Sarawak are comparable to the pollination guilds of neotropical Zingiberales, i.e., hummingbird-, and euglossine-bee-pollinated guilds. Canonical discriminant analysis revealed that there were significant correlations between floral morphology and pollination guilds and suggests the importance of plant-pollinator interactions in the evolution of floral morphology. Most species in the three guilds were separated on the plot by the first and second canonical variables. Spiderhunter-pollinated flowers had longer floral tubes, while Amegilla-pollinated flowers had wider lips than the others, which function as a platform for the pollinators. Pistils and stamens of halictid-pollinated flowers were smaller than the others. The fact that gingers with diverse morphologies in a forest with high species diversity were grouped into only three pollination guilds and that the pollinators themselves showed low species diversity suggests that many species of rare understory plants have evolved without segregating pollinators in each pollination guild.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                Journal of Hymenoptera Research
                JHR
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2607
                1070-9428
                April 29 2022
                April 29 2022
                : 90
                : 173-183
                Article
                10.3897/jhr.90.79930
                8976de72-c44d-4834-8086-1bb69ceb0d91
                © 2022

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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